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atom

the basic unit of matter

nucleus

the center of an atom, made up of protons and neutron

proton

the positively charged particle in an atom

neutron

the particle of an atom that has no charge

electron

the negatively charged particle in an atom

element

a pure substance that contains ony one kind of atom

compound

a substance that is made of more than one kind of element, combimed in sepcific proportions

atomic number

the number of protons in an atom

mass number

the total mass of the protons and neutrons in a particular atom

isotopes

two atoms of the same element with different mass numbers (same number of protons, different number of neutrons)

ionic bond

a bond that is formed when one atom gives electrons to another atom

covalent bond

a bond that is formed when atoms share electrons

atomic mass

the average mass of all isotopes of a given element

valence electron

an electron in an atom's outer energy level, where it can take part in a reaction with other atoms

ion

an atom or molecule that has a charge because it has gained or lost electrons

hydrogen bond

a weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom; the way water molecules bond

molecule

the particle created when atoms bond together, with either similar or different kinds of atoms

polar

an arrangement of a molecule where one side has a positive charge and the other has a negative charge

cohesion

the attraction between molecules of the same substance

adhesion

the attraction between molecules of different substances

mixture

a material made of two or more substances that are not chemically combined

solution

a material made of at least one substance that has dissolved another, so that all the components are equally distributed

solute

the material that is dissolved in a solution

solvent

the material that dissolves another substance in a solution

pH

a measure of how acidic or basic a substance is (the concentration of H+ ions)

acid

a substance with a pH lower than 7; forms H+ ions in a solution

base

a substance with a pH higher than 7; forms OH- ions in a solution

buffers

weak acids or bases that react with strong acids or bases to prevent a sudden change in pH

monomer

a small compound that joins with others to make a polymer

polymer

a macromolecule formed by joining many monomers

carbohydrate

compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually in the ratio of 1:2:1

monosaccharide

a simple suger made of one molecule

starch

a substance that forms when sugars join in long chains

polysaccharide

a macromolecule that stores sugars in the body; formed by joining many monosaccharides

lipid

an energy-storing family of molecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen, and which are not soluble in water; "fats"

nucleic acid

macromolecules made of nucleotides; 2 kinds: DNA and RNA

nucleotide

the building block of a nucleic acid

protein

macromolecules made of combinations of amino acids

amino acid

the building block of a protein

chemical reaction

a process that changes one set of chemicals into another

reactants

the chemicals that enter an chemical reaction

products

the chemicals that result from a chemical reaction

activation energy

the energy needed to get a reaction started

catalyst

a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy

enzyme

a protein that acts as a catalyst

substrate

the reactants in a chemical reaction that uses an enzyme as a catalyst

van der Waals forces

the weak attraction between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules

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