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Ch. 10

TQM was defined in the textbook as managing the entire organization so that it excels on all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer.

True

TQM is an acronym meaning "total quality measurement."

False

One tool used in total quality management is the run chart.

True

One SPC tool used in total quality management is the Pareto chart.

True

An operational goal of total quality management is the careful design of the product or service.

True

An operational goal of total quality management is ensuring that the organization's systems can consistently produce the product or service as it is designed.

True

An operational goal of total quality management is ensuring that the organization's systems will never produce a defective product or service.

False

Design quality refers to the inherent value of the product in the marketplace.

True

One of the tools common to all quality efforts is leadership.

False

In 1997 the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act established the U.S. annual award for total quality management.

False

Conformance quality is a strategic decision for a firm.

False

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award represents the U. S. government's endorsement of quality as an essential part of successful business strategy.

True

While business organizations can seek to achieve the Baldrige National Quality Award, universities cannot.

False

While small business organizations can seek to achieve the Baldrige National Quality Award, hospitals cannot.

False

A quality guru named Philip Crosby defined quality as fitness for use.

False

A quality guru named Philip Crosby defined quality as conformance to requirements.

True

A quality guru named Joseph M. Juran defined quality as fitness for use.

True

A quality guru named Philip Crosby suggested that a general approach to quality management should involve prevention, not inspection.

True

A quality guru named Joseph M. Juran is well known for his program structured around "14 points" for management.

False

Fundamental to any quality program is the determination of quality specifications and the costs of achieving (or not achieving) those specifications.

True

The term "conformance quality" refers to the relative level of performance of a product as compared to competing products. For instance, certain luxury sedans are said to be of "higher quality" than some low-priced sub-compact automobiles.

False

"Quality at the source" refers to the degree to which a product or service design specifications are met.

False

Design quality in products refers to the degree to which a product or service design specifications are met.

False

One of the definitions for the cost of quality is that it represents the costs attributable to the production of quality that is not 100 percent perfect.

True

Six-sigma refers to the philosophy and methods that some companies use to eliminate defects in their products and processes.

True

A process that is in six-sigma control will produce no more than two defects out of every million units.

False

An opportunity flow diagram is used to separate the value-added from the non-value-added steps in a process.

True

An opportunity flow diagram is a time sequenced chart showing plotted values measuring the flow of end product or components.

False

Philip Crosby states that the correct cost for a well-run quality management program should be under 2.5 percent of sales.

True

W. Edwards Deming states that the correct cost for a well-run quality management program should be under 0.5 percent of sales.

False

The term CTQ is used in the "Define (D)" portion of the DMAIC methodology.

True

The term CTQ stands for "Cost Through Quality" which is another way to express Philip Crosby's idea that "Quality is Free."

False

Design of Experiments (DOE) refers to work done before production of early model prototypes of a new product.

False

Design of Experiments (DOE) is sometimes referred to as multivariate testing.

True

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a specialized international agency recognized by affiliates in more than 160 countries.

True

ISO 9000 is primarily concerned with environmental management.

False

ISO 14000 is primarily concerned with environmental management.

True

ISO standards ask a company first to document and implement its systems for quality management and then to verify, by means of an internal audit the compliance of those systems with the requirements of the standards.

False

Variation in production systems that is caused by factors that can be clearly identified and possibly even managed is called assignable variation.

True

An example of assignable variation in a production system may be that workers are not identically trained.

True

An example of assignable variation in a production system may be that a machine is not adjusted properly.

True

Variation that is inherent in a production process itself is called assignable variation.

False

Variation that is inherent in a production process itself is called common variation.

True

It is impossible to have zero variability in production processes.

True

Genichi Taguchi's view of the cost of quality is that variance is a discontinuous function.

False

The capability index is used to gauge economic changes in service systems.

False

Process control is concerned with monitoring quality after the product or service has been produced.

False

Statistical process control involves testing random samples of output from a process to determine whether the process is producing items within a pre-selected range.

True

Measurement by attributes means taking a sample, measuring the attribute in question and determining the level of quality in the population from which the sample was drawn.

False

Attributes are those quality characteristics that are classified as either conforming or not conforming to specification.

True

A "p chart" has upper and lower control limits expressed as lines on the chart. As long as the sample values fall between these two lines there is no need to investigate process behavior.

False

The "p chart" is only useful for sampling that deals with continuous variables.

False

The value for "z" used in quality control charts is based on the degree of confidence you want to have in the resulting UCL and LCL values.

True

If the fraction defective is 0.12 based on a sample size of 16, the standard deviation used in the "p" chart is about 0.08.

True

If the fraction defective is 0.4 based on a sample size of 100, the standard deviation used in the "p" chart is about 0.10.

False

To obtain a 99.7 percent confidence level in a "p" chart we would use a value of 3 for "z".

True

Acceptance sampling is performed on goods that already exist to determine what percentage of items conforms to specifications.

True

In acceptance sampling, the number of units in the sample (n) is determined by the interaction of the acceptable quality level (AQL), the lot tolerance percent defective (LTPD), the probability of rejecting a high quality lot (alpha) and the probability of accepting a low quality lot (beta).

True

In acceptance sampling, the value for the acceptance number (c) is determined by the interaction of the acceptable quality level (AQL), the lot tolerance percent defective (LTPD), the probability of rejecting a high quality lot (alpha) and the probability of accepting a low quality lot (beta).

True

AQL stands for accepting questionable lots in production quality management.

False

LTPD in acceptance sampling stands for "lot tolerance for parts defective."

False

The Greek letter alpha is associated with consumer's risk.

False

The probability associated with rejecting a high quality lot is denoted in acceptance sampling with the Greek letter alpha.

True

The probability associated with accepting a low quality lot is denoted in acceptance sampling with the Greek letter alpha.

False

The producer's risk associated with rejecting a high quality lot is denoted in acceptance sampling with the Greek letter beta.

False

Total, one-hundred percent, inspection can never be cost justified.

False

One-hundred percent inspection is justified when the cost of inspection is low.

False

Sampling plans are generally displayed graphically through the use of operating characteristic (OC) curves.

True

The capability index (Cpk) calculates the percentage of items being produced within specifications.

False

The capability index (Cpk) indicates the position of the mean and tails of a process's variance relative to design specifications.

True

Standard practice in statistical process control for variables is to set control limits so that 95 percent of the sample means will fall within the UCL and the LCL.

False

In variables sampling the actual measurements of the variable observed are used regardless of whether the unit is good or bad.

True

The philosophical leaders of the quality movement, Philip Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, and Joseph M. Juran had the same general message about what it took to achieve outstanding quality. Which of the following was not part of that message?

Quality is free

The philosophical leaders of the quality movement, Philip Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, and Joseph M. Juran had the same general message about what it took to achieve outstanding quality. Which of the following was part of that message?

Customer focus

An analytical tool used in six-sigma quality improvement programs is which of the following?

Checksheets

Which of the following is not an analytical tool used in six-sigma quality improvement programs?

Pass charts

A flow chart as part of a six-sigma quality improvement process might be found in which DMAIC category?

Define

A fishbone diagram as part of a six-sigma quality improvement process might be found in which DMAIC category?

Analyze

An opportunity flow diagram as part of a six-sigma quality improvement process might be found in which DMAIC category?

Improve

A Pareto chart as part of a six-sigma quality improvement process might be found in which DMAIC category?

Measure

Which of the following is an analytical tool used in six-sigma quality improvement programs?

Pareto Charts

Which of the following is not an analytical tool used in six-sigma quality improvement programs?

Decision diagrams

Failure mode and effect analysis is used in six-sigma projects. It involves which of the following?

Calculating a risk priority number for each possible failure

Design of experiments is a statistical methodology often used in six-sigma projects. It aims to accomplish which of the following?

Determine the cause and effect relationships between process variables and output

The Malcolm Baldrige award selection process helps improve quality and productivity by which of the following means?

Providing feedback to applicants by the examiners

Which of the following are eligible companies to be considered for the Baldrige award?

Auditing firms

Which of the following are not eligible to be considered for the Baldrige Award?

State highway patrol organizations

The primary purpose of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award is which of the following?

To help companies review and structure their quality programs

Applicants for the Baldrige Award for total quality management must submit an application of up to 50 pages that details the processes and results of their activities under seven major categories. Which of the following is one of those categories?

Analysis and remember management

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award is given to organizations that have done which of the following?

Demonstrated outstanding quality in their products and processes

Which of the following is not a category reported in applying for the Baldrige Award?

Use of statistical quality control tools

The dimension of design quality that concerns the sensory characteristics of the product is which of the following?

Aesthetics

The dimension of design quality that concerns the consistency of performance over time or the probability of failing is which of the following?

Reliability

The dimension of design quality that concerns secondary characteristics is which of the following?

Features

Which of the following is a dimension of design quality?

Features

Which of the following is a dimension of design quality?

Aesthetics

Which of the following are basic assumptions that justify an analysis of the costs of quality?

Failures are caused

A cost of quality classification is which of the following?

Prevention costs

Which of the following is the cost of quality classification for costs such as scrap, rework, or repair?

Internal failure costs

Which of the following is the cost of quality classification for costs such as inspection, testing, and other tasks to ensure that the product or process is acceptable?

Appraisal costs

Which of the following is the cost of quality classification for costs such as defects that pass through the system, such as customer warranty replacements, loss of customer or goodwill, handling complaints, and product repair?

External failure costs

In monitoring process quality we might use which of the following statistics?

Difference between the highest and lowest value in a sample

You have just used the capability index (Cpk) formulas to compute the two values "min [2, 2.5]." Which of the following is the proper interpretation of these numbers?

The mean of the production process has shifted to the left of the design limits

You have just used the capability index (Cpk) formulas to compute the two values "min [1, 1]." Which of the following is the proper interpretation of these numbers?

The mean has not shifted at all

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