## Earthquake terms

##### Created by:

kkaiser55  on February 3, 2008

##### Description:

Basic terms as related to the study of earthquakes

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# Earthquake terms

 Faulta fracture along which blocks of crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture, a break in the earth's crust
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#### Definitions

Fault a fracture along which blocks of crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture, a break in the earth's crust
Normal fault A rock mass above a fault that moves down during an earthquake, caused by tension forces
Reverse fault If rock above the fault moves upward, caused by compression forces
Strike-slip fault vertical fractures where the rocks have mostly moved horizontally, slide past each other
Seismic wave waves (energy) produced by earthquakes starting at the epicenter
Liquefaction During an earthquake a process by which water-saturated sediment temporarily loses strength and acts as a fluid
Tremor Shaking of the earth before,during and after an earthquake
Focus the point within the earth ( in the ground) where an earthquake rupture starts
Primary Wave First seismic wave,or longitudinal wave, is a seismic wave that shakes the ground back and forth in the same and opposite driection the wave is moving
Secondary Wave Second seismic wave,(transverse wave) is a seismic body wave that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving. Also called a shear wave.
Surface Wave a seismic wave that is trapped near the surface of the earth. Also called a Rayleigh or Love wave.
Shadow Zone This area is a result of S waves being stopped entirely by the liquid core and P waves being bent (refracted) by the liquid core.
After shock Earthquakes that follow the largest shock of an earthquake sequence. They are smaller than the mainshock
Intensity A number (written as a Roman numeral) describing the severity of an earthquake in terms of its damage to earth's surface and on humans and their structures (In the Mercalli Scale)
Epicenter The point on the earth's surface vertically above the focus, point in the crust where a seismic rupture begins.
Seismologist A person who studies earthquakes
Seismograph is an instrument used to detect and record earthquakes
Magnitude A number that characterizes the relative size of energy of an earthquake.
Mercalli Scale The SCALE that uses the intensity number a number (written as a Roman numeral) describing the severity of an earthquake in terms of damages (people and buildings)
Tsunami a sea wave of local or distant origin that results from large-scale seafloor displacements associated with large earthquakes, major submarine slides, or exploding volcanic islands
Earthquake vibrations produced when rocks are bent and broken
crest the top of a wave is called a
trough the bottom of a wave is called a
wave length the distance between two wave crests is called a
amplitude the height measured for a wave is called the
tension the force that causes stretching
compression the force that squeezes

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