Management 14-18

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An interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of how individuals and groups tend to act in organizations is
called

organizational behavior.

Which of the following refers to work behavior that goes beyond job requirements and contributes as needed to the organization's success

Organizational citizenship

____ refers to a positive attitude toward one's job

Job satisfaction

Roy is a top executive at a cigarette manufacturing company who believes that cigarettes are dangerous products and they kill people. This condition can be described as

cognitive dissonance

The cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and
interpreting information is called

perception

Which of the following describes the last step in the perception process?

Organizing the selected data into patterns

____ is the process by which individuals screen and select the various objects and stimuli that vie for their attention.

Perceptual selectivity

Which of the following refers to the tendency to see one's own personal traits in other people?

Projection

Which of the following refers to the tendency to place the primary responsibility for one's success or failure
either within oneself or on outside forces?

Locus of control

Individuals who believe that they control their own destiny are described as having a

high internal locus of control

Jason has been unemployed for three months. When his wife asked him why he was not looking for a job, Jason responded, "If I am lucky, I will get my old job back." Jason would be considered as having a(n)

external locus of control

People with an external locus of control are

easier to lead

Which of the following is defined as the tendency to direct much of one's behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of others for personal gain?

Machiavellianism

Research shows that ____ are predisposed to being pragmatic, capable of lying to achieve personal goals,
more likely to win in win-lose situations, and more likely to persuade than be persuaded.

high Machs

Type A behavior pattern is characterized by all of these EXCEPT

relaxed lifestyle

____ is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals.

Leadership

Which of the following refers to the highest level in a hierarchy of manager capabilities?

Level 5 leadership

Researchers at the Ohio State University identified two major behaviors called

consideration and initiating structure.

The key assumption of Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory is that subordinates vary in their

readiness level.

Hersey and Blanchard are responsible for which theory

Situational theory

Charismatic leaders are often ____ than transactional leaders

less predictable

Some of the key characteristics associated with charismatic leaders include

a. visionary skills.
b. communication skills.
c. motivation skills.
d. all of these.

power comes from organizational structure and promotes stability, order, and problem solving within the structure.

Position

____ power comes from personal sources that are not as invested in the organization, such as personal interests, goals, and values.

Personal

Which of the following is the power coming from a formal management position in the organization?

Legitimate power

____ power is based in the ability of the leader to do such things as recommend promotions

Reward

Which of the following types of power is vested in the manager's ability to punish employees?

Coercive

Which of the following types of power stems from a leader's special knowledge?

b. Referent power
c. Legitimate power
d. Coercive power
e. None of these( answer)

Referent power depends on the leader's
.

personal characteristics

A fire that ignites followers" is used to describe which leadership characteristic?

Charisma

Which of the following is the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior?

Motivation

____ refers to a reward given by another person.

An extrinsic reward

____ is an example of an intrinsic reward

An employee's feelings of self-worth

Which of the following is a content theory that proposes that people are motivated by physiological, safety,
belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization needs?

Hierarchy of needs theory

Which of the following is NOT a need proposed by Maslow in his hierarchy of needs theory?

Compensation needs

Nelson is motivated by a strong need for recognition and is continually seeking credit for his contributions to the organization. According to Maslow, Neil is motivated by which category of needs?

Esteem

____ describe the most basic human physical needs, including food, water and oxygen

Belongingness needs

Which need describes the desire to be accepted by one's peer, have friendships, be part of a group, and be
loved?

Belongingness needs

According to Maslow, the highest order needs are

self-actualization needs

According to Herzberg, ____ is an example of a hygiene factor

pay

Which of the following is based on the relationships between effort, performance, and outcomes?

Expectancy theory

Which of these is sometimes called negative reinforcement?

Avoidance learning

Which of these refers to the withdrawal of a positive reward, meaning that behavior is no longer reinforced
and hence is less likely to occur in the future?

Extinction

____ systematically moves employees from one job to another, thereby increasing the number of different tasks an employee performs without increasing the complexity of any one job.

Job rotation

Which of the following combines a series of tasks into one new, broader job?

Job enlargement

What percentage of a manager's time is spent in direct communication?

80 percent

Communication is defined by the text as the process by which information is
exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or

influence behavior

Which of the following, in the communication process, has the responsibility to decode the symbols and interpret the meaning of the message?

Receiver

____ and ____ are potential sources for communication errors, because knowledge, attitudes, and background act as filters.

Decoding, encoding

____ refers to the amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode

Channel richness

Which of these is the richest medium for communication?

Face to face contact

Which of the following comprises the lowest channel richness?

Bulletins

The term ____ is defined as "an individual's level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated
communication."

communication apprehension

____ is defined as communication transmitted through actions and behaviors rather than through words.

Nonverbal communication

Which of the following is the most familiar and obvious flow of formal communication?

Downward communication

Many organizations use suggestion boxes, open door policies, and surveys to facilitate

upward communication

Upward communication is usually used to communicate information about all of the following EXCEPT

indoctrination.

____ is the acquisition and cultivation of personal relationships that cross departmental, hierarchical, and even
organizational boundaries.

Personal networking

Messages that convey data or statistics or simply put into words what managers already agree on and understand are referred to as:

Routine messages

During breaks at work, Albert and Daphne talk occasionally about the problems that they are working on at work, in hopes that they can help each other out. This is an example of what type of organizational communication?

Lateral communication

Which of the following is a component of a team?

A performance goal is shared between team member

A functional team is also referred to as a(n):

command team.

Which of the following refers to a formal team composed of employees from about the same hierarchical
level but from different areas of expertise?

A horizontal team

A ____ is a group of employees from different departments formed to deal with a specific activity and existing only until the task is completed.

Task force

Which of the following teams are created outside the formal organization structure to undertake a project of
special importance or creativity

Special-purpose

Which of the following teams are described as a team that uses computer technology and groupware so that
geographically distant members can collaborate on projects and reach common goals

Virtual

What is the ideal size of work teams?

Five

Which of the following is the first stage of team development?

Forming

The forming stage of team development is characterized by

orientation

During which stage of team development should the team leader help clarify team roles, norms, and values?

Norming

Which of the five stages of team development is marked by conflict and disagreement

Storming

During the ____ stage, the team leader should encourage participation by each team member

storming

During which stage of team development does team unity emerge?

Norming

Dale's work team is beginning to resolve its conflicts and consensus is developing on such things as members' roles. Dale's team is in which stage of team development?

Norming

During the ____ stage of team development, the major emphasis is on task accomplishment.

performing

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