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Section 2 of the 14th Amendment reaffirms the constitutional prescription of apportioning seats in the House of Rep's according to a state's pop. but makes the following exception:

if black males are not allowed to vote in federal and state elections, the number of allocated seats would be reduced proportionally

The First Reconstruction Act of 1867 disbanded the governments of the southern states and replaced them with:

five military districts headed by generals and administered by more than twenty thousand troops

Which of the following is a good formal definition of politics?

the process through which individuals and groups reach agreement on a course of common action even as they continue to disagree on the goals of the action

In the early colonial era, Britain ceded to the Americans the responsibility for managing their own domestic affairs, including taxation. This ia known as:

home rule

Over the past century, determination of civil liberties policy has shifted:

from nearly exclusive jurisdiction of states and communities to Washington, D.C.

The Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Edu. of Topeka is most notable for which of the following reasons:

it stuck down the separate but equal doctrine established by Plessy v. Ferguson

Modern democracies blend delegation and majority rule together into what us known as which of the following:

representative government

When modern state governments have encountered the same dilemmas of collective action that prompted their 18th cent. counterparts to send delegates to the Constitutional Convention of Philly, they have solved the dilemmas by shifting responsibility from which of the following:

from state to federal authorities

The so-called "elastic clause" of Art. I, Sec. 8, of the Constitution provides that Congress can "make all Laws which shall be...

...necessary and proper for carrying into Execution" the foregoing enumerated powers.

"Jim Crow Laws" were which of the following:

laws adopted throughout the South to dissenfranchise black citizens and to institutionalize segregation

The intent behind Madison's Virginia Plan was that rep's in the lower house of the bicameral system would control the selection of other officers of government. These rep's had special legitimacy in formulating national policy for which of the following reasons:

they were directly elected by the people

Incorporation of provisions of the Bill of Rights into the 14th Amendment occurred through which of the following:

judicial interpretation

The difference between de facto segregation and de jure segregation is which of the following:

de fact segregation is NOT mandated by law; de jury segregation IS mandated by law

Under the Articles of Confederation each state was free to conduct its own international trade policy, which meant which of the following:

foreign governments and merchants could exploit competition among the states to negotiate profitable trade agreements

The original intent of the supremacy clausewas to ensure which of the following:

the national government would prevail over states when both governments were acting in constitutionally correct manner

Currently, the most accurate statement about the application of the Bill of Rights to the states is which of the following:

some of the provisions of the Bill of Rights are still NOT applied to the states

What's the name of the Georgia state legislation?

General Assembly

Who was the 1st African-American student to the University of Mississippi?

James Meredith

The process of "incorporation" by the Supreme Court refers to which of the following:

bringing state laws and practices under the Bill of Rights protections by applying the 14th Amendment to the states

Which of the following was the rationale behind the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which matched Missouri's entry into the Union as a slave state with Maine's entry into the Union as a free state?

the parties compromised so the balance in the Senate between free and slave states would be maintained

The 14th Amendment, as an integral part of Reconstruction, was intended to serve 2 constituencies--first, African Americans in the South, and second:

the Repulican majority in Washington, D.C.

The Supreme Court has held the death penalty to be which of the following:

cruel and unusual as applied but, since 1976, allowed because the defects in state sentencing procedures were remedied

Dual federalism leaves the states and the national government to preside over which of the following:

mutually exclusive spheres of sovereignty

Although the 2 concepts are often interchangeably, the difference between civil liberties and civil rights is:

civil liberties are the Constitution's protections "from" gov. power; civil rights are the Constitution's protections "by" gov. power

Which of the following are 2 compelling reasons for a group to prefer national policy to state policy:

the national arena may be the only place in which it can hope to prevail and it is easier to lobby Congress than the 50 state legislatures

An independent press plays an indispensable role in maintaining a representative democracy for which of the following reasons:

without reliable info about the performance of officeholders, citizens would be hard-pressed to monitor their agents, and politicians would find it difficult to communicate with their constituents

What year did the current state constitution of Georgia go into effect?


What are transaction costs?

the time, effort, and resources required to make collective decisions

A central feature of the Great Compromise was which of the following:

a bicameral legislature with the upper chamber representation equal for all states and the lower chamber rep based on population

The problem that arises from the costless consumption by a large number of individuals of a public good that results in its ruination is called:

a tragedy of the commons

Article IV of the Constitution requires that the national government ensure which of the following:

that all states adhere to a republican form of government

Without rules and procedures for promoting successful collective action, as participants and preferences multiply:

unstructured negotiation rarely yields a collective decision all parties can accept

After Brown v. Board of Edu. was decided in 1954, Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, was integrated in 1957 with the help of:

U.S. Army troops sent by President Dwight Eisenhower

The "necessary and proper clause" of the Constitution:

provides Congress with the authority to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers enumerated by the Constitution

Under the Articles of Confederation, the States faced a classic prisoner's dilemma for which of the following:

with no enforcement mechanism in place, no state would contribute its share of revenue so long as it suspected others might not contribute

The checks and balances contained within the Constitution result in:

some capacity of each of the 3 branches to limit the power of the other two

The Supreme Court has interpreted the Fourth Amendment to allow for police searches and seizures of evidence without a warrant under all of the following circumstances, except one:

when using a thermal imaging device to conduct a blanket sweep of neighborhood to search for basement Marijuana fields

The second sentence of the Fourteenth Amendment, which includes both the "equal protection clause" and the "due process clause," means in part:

all persons enjoy the same civil liberties and rights, which the states cannot deny without following reasonable, legally established procedures applied equally to everyone

"Collective Action" refers to:

the efforts of a group to reach and implement agreements

The use by the national government of cross-cutting requirements, crossover sanctions, direct orders, and partial preemption are all example of:

unfunded mandates

The Constitution gives presidents a modest role in the legislative arena including:

the veto and the ability to call Congress into special session

James Madison was referring to ________ when he wrote in Federalist No. 62 that its necessity was "indicated by the propensity of all single and numerous assemblies to yield to the impulse of sudden and violent passions, and to be seduced by factious leaders into intemperate and pernicious resolutions.'

the Senate

The War Powers Act, which was approved by Congress in 1973 over Pres. Nixon's veto, requires that the president inform which of the following"

Congress, within forty-eight hrs of committing troops abroad in military action, and the action must end within sixty days unless Congress approves and extension

Bureaucratic red tape often springs directly from which of the following:

Congress's desire to control administration

The Federalists passed the Judiciary Act of 1801, which accomplished which:

it sharply RAISED the number of district and appellate courts and thereby created new judgeships for the outgoing Federalists to fill

The Department of Agriculture, Labor, and Commerce rep'd a new type of agency for which of the following reasons:

unlike prior departments, which served general social purposes, each of these departments was est'd to serve the particular clientele indicated by its title

Marshall's ruling in Marbury v. Madison is a testament to his strategic political skills for which:

because it did not command the other political actors to do anything to affirm the Court's authority

The current Supreme Court may be tentatively ushering in a fourth era of judicial review--one that finds the /court increasingly limiting which of the following:

the federal gov's ability to impose policy and administrative restrictions on the states

President Andrew Jackson chose Roger Taney to be the successor to Chief Justice John Marshall for which of the following reasons:

because like Jackson, Taney was an advocate of states' rights

Generally speaking, the Supreme Court has had 3 distinct historical eras wherein the justices primarily concerned themselves with which of the following:

1. nation-state authority 2. gov regulation of the economy 3. civil rights and liberties

Which of the following describes the group dubbed the "Whiskey Ring" during the Grant administration:

a group of revenue officials, all political appointees, who conspired with distillers to evade taxes on a massive scale

As a proportion of the population, the federal workforce:

has actually been shrinking since the 1950s

Although initially ignored as a toothless partisan maneuver, Marbury v. Madison:

subsequently came t be appreciated for establishing the Court's "coequal" status among the branches of gov

The doctrine of judicial review:

holds that the Supreme Court possesses the authority to rule acts of Congress unconstitutional

The remarkable variety of arrangements adopted to administer gov policies is largely a product of the endless search by Congress and the White House for:

ways to maximize the potential political benefits and minimize the potential political costs each time they decide to exercise and delegate their authority

The term "gerrymander" refers to which:

the extensive manipulation of the shape of a legislative district to benefit a certain incumbent or party

The seniority rule does which:

it routinely allocates first choice in committee assignments to majority party members who have served the longest time in CONGRESS

A roll call vote means which:

each member of the House or Senate who's present and votes has his or her specific vote recorded

To end a filibuster in the Senate, cloture must be invoked by how many votes:

three-fifths of the Senate membership, currently 60 votes

Evidence suggests presidents view _________ as a viable alternative to negotiating with the opposition on Capitol Hill.

going public

Congress uses a variety of methods to keep its bureaucratic agents in line including:

legislative vetoes, hearings and investigations, and mandatory reporting

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is best described as which:

the president's primary control instrument over the bureaucracy

When choosing Supreme Court nominees, presidents have done which:

they have chosen members of their own parties over 90% of the time

In distributing power between the House and the Senate, the final compromise regarding the authority to raise or spend money required that bills raising revenue originate in which:

the House, with the Senate having an UNrestricted right to amend them

The Framers frequently referred to the veto as a "negative" for which:

the veto allows presidents to block Congress but doesn't permit them to substitute their own policy preferences for the vetoed bill

The model bureaucracy is best described as which:

a purposive machine with interchangeable human parts designed to facilitate collective action while enabling principals to control agents

The Civil War settled the supremacy issue in favor of the ________; the actual ________ at both levels remained uncertain.

national gov/ scope of gov

For the 8,000 or so certiorari requests it receives each year, the Supreme Court's rule to determine whether any given case is heard is:

FOUR of the nine judges must favor hearing the case

Which of the following is true about the committee systems in GA:

they collectively are the 2nd organizational pillar upholding the institutional power of Congress in the federal system

In parliamentary systems, government authority rests with the legislature, which does which of the following:

it chooses the chief executive

Regarding the difference in incumbency advantage between House of Rep's and the Senate, it's safe to say that:

overall, Senate election outcomes are more variable than House election outcomes

Assignments to Congressional committees are:

made by party committees under the firm control of senior party leaders and ratified by the party membership

During the Federalist years, federal gov workers were primarily occupied with:

delivering mail and collecting duties and taxes

Which of the following are the 3 layers of organization of the federal judiciary:

the district courts, the circuit courts of appeal, and the Supreme Court

Both Bill Clinton and George H. W. Bush faced an opposition-controlled Congress, and when they reached an impasse over the budget they did which of the following:

they used different strategies- George H. W. Bush negotiated with Congress and Bill Clinton confronted Congress--that resulted in dramatically different consequences for both national policy and their careers

Compared to its 19th century counterpart, which of the following is true about the modern cabinet:

it has lost much of its lister as offices with real political clout

Franklin Roosevelt's "central clearance" executive order provided which:

that all communications to Congress that could affect future budgets had to be cleared as consistent with the president's policy by the Bureau of the Budget

In 1937 the President's Committee on Administrative Management, a.k.a. the Brownlow Committee, concluded its detailed analysis of the state of the presidency with which:

"the president needs help"

Which of the following are true about unanimous consent agreements in the Senate:

they mean party leadership is more collegial and less formal, and the minority party has greater influence in the business of the Senate than in the House

Despite a sharp increase in diversity in the 1990s, Congress remains overwhelmingly white and male because of which:

white males still predominate in the lower-level public offices and private careers that are the most common stepping-stones to Congress

When critics of a president charge the chief executive is trying to turn the office into an imperial presidency, they mean the president is attempting to do which:

extend their influence unilaterally by issuing executive orders

The unprecedented vigor with which the Supreme Court struck down laws regulating business during the 1920s did which:

it won the Court the enmity of many elected officials, who found the justices obstructed their efforts to respond to the demands and needs of their constituents

Standing committees are so called for which of the following reasons:

they exist from one Congress to the next, unless they are explicitly disbanded

Which of the following is true about the Department of Energy:

it was created by Pres. Jimmy Carter as a political response to the energy shortage of the 1970s and a declaration of his administration's commitment to securing adequate supplies of energy for the nation

Senatorial courtesy refers to which:

the delegation by the president of the choice of district judges to the senators from the state where the court is located

A multiple referral send a bill to which:

to several committees at once, in whole or in part

Because the president nominates and the Senate confirms federal court appointments:

they reverse the legislative veto game

The qualifications for office for the Senate and the House of Rep's contained in the Constitution differ by which:

age and length of citizenship

While helping presidents compete successfully with opposition-controlled Congresses, the development of cable television and other mass communications technology has also done which:

NEVERTHELESS eroded the president's capacity to enlist television to go public

The Supreme Court reacted to FDR's court-packing plan by doing:

beginning to uphold the types of economic regulation it had previously struck down

In An Economic Theory of Democracy, Anthony Downs defines a political party as:

a team of men seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in duly constituted election

Regular elections, broad suffrage, freedom of speech and the press, and freedom to join or form political organizations are significant because:

they control gov leaders to take the public's opinion into account if they want to keep their jobs

For most people, basic political orientations:

are quite resistant to change

Elections work to ameliorate the problem of delegation of authority in which of the following ways:

all of the above

Broadly speaking, campaign finance operates through 2 parallel systems:

money given directly to candidates, which is regulated, and money spent outside of the candidate's campaign, which generally is unregulated

Experience with liberal policies moves public opinion in a conservative direction, and experience with conservative policies makes the public more liberal because:

the inevitable shortcomings of both the liberal and conservative approaches to gov eventually make the opposition's ideas more attractive

Some of the staples of political advertising are"

all of the above

Like the vote, public opinion has its political effect as an aggregate phenom, but also shares which of the following similarities to the vote:

it is no more than the sum of its individual parts

Although almost everyone advocates a balanced budget, every spending program and tax break is defended by organized beneficiaries while deficit reduction,___________, inspires far less active organized support.

a concentrated particularized benefit

When asked to place themselves on a scale from very liberal to very conservative, about half the people classify themselves as liberal or conservative. Of the rest:

about a quarter position themselves in the middle and another quarter don't place themselves at all

In the mid-1770s the era's most significant medium of political communication was:

the pamphlet

The process of acquiring political attitudes is known as:

political socialization

When politicians strategically give important info to the news media on the condition that its source not be identified by name, this is referred to as:

a leak

Most interest groups that survive over time do so because they:

stake out an exclusive claim to leadership and expertise on a particular subset of issues

The most accurate statement about the differences in opinion between party activists and regular voters is:

party activists are more ideological, whether conservative or liberal, than regular voters

Individual opinions sometimes may be badly informed and unstable:

but aggregate public opinion is both stable and coherent

The credibility of political info provided by lobbyists to political officials is enhanced when:

a group mobilizes its constituency as part of the lobbying effort

The assorted demographic and institutional influences on voting procedure an electorate:

in which wealthy, well-educated, older white people are overrepresented and poor, uneducated, young, and nonwhite people are underrepresented.

During the 1920s, when hundreds of radio stations overcrowded desirable sports of the radio dial, the FCC was created in part to solve this classic:

tragedy of the commons

Party labels provide cues for performance voting so voters can easily:

vote for the in-aprty when the voter thinks the gov is doing well and vote for the out-party when the voter thinks the gov is doing badly

Pres. Lyndon Johnson's handling of the Vietnam War and Pres. Richard Nixon's Watergate scandal affected the outlook of the press toward the institution of the presidency because:

both event involved presidents concealing info from the media

The relationship between politicians and reporters can be best described as:

built on tension between reciprocity and competition

In theory, ideologies promote consistency among political attitudes by connecting them to a more general principle or set of principles. In practice, ideologies:

often combine attitudes linked more by coalitional politics than by principle

One study in 2004 found that national and local conservative talk radio programs totaled forty thousand broadcast hrs per week compared to _________ broad hrs for liberal talk show hosts.

three thousand

The years of the Monroe presidency were dubbed the Era of Good Feelings because:

they lacked any significant party conflict

Since politicians know that lobbyists are advocates, they can only trust a lobbyist's info when:

both sides expect to have a continuing relationship

Duverger's law explains:

why in any election in which a single winner is chosen by plurality voting, there's a strong tendency for serious competitors to be reduced to two

Voters may not think much of parties, but large majorities still admit to party preferences and use parties to guide their voting decisions for which of the following reasons:

because party labels still provide the cheap, shorthand cue so useful to less-informed voters

Both insiders and outsiders use electoral politics to influence elected officials, but insiders _______, while outsiders more often ______.

offer electoral help/threaten electoral harm

Divided gov:

allows each party to block the other party's more extreme proposals and forces both to compromise when making policy

Lobbying is defined as:

appeals from citizens and groups to legislators for favorable policies and decisions

The news media:

are the organizations that gather, package, and transmit the news

Which of the following is a standard collective action problem that must be overcome for an interest group to promote or defend a shared interest:

rational self-interest leads to universal free riding, which dooms the organization as well as the effort unless some way can be found around this difficulty.

The threat of collective punishment by the voters fives the majority party:

a strong incentive to govern in ways that please voters

Because races tend to be much closer when the advantages of incumbency don't apply:

candidates for open seats usually are in a better position to raise funds

Which is true about organizations that rely on so called "moral incentives" for joining interest groups:

they tend to grow when opponents run the gov

Within a few decades of ratification of the First Amendment, the notion that the free press would guard the citizenry's liberties against the designs of ambitious politicians:

had been replaced by the press as dedicated partisan boosters

Although majorities of Americans consistently say they prefer that control of gov be divided between the parties:

nevertheless a large majority who identify themselves as Dem or Republican loyally vote for their party's candidate

The proliferation of alternative media gives viewers:

the opportunity to opt out of consuming political news

Which of the following is true about opinion leaders:

they are a small segment of the public that forms opinions by paying close attention to political events and issues and from whom the uninformed majority takes cues about the issues

The "party in the electorate" refers to one part of a connected three-part system that is:

composed of those voters who identify with the party and regularly vote for its nominees

Systematic evidence suggests that the variations in policy preferences between voters and nonvoters are:

not very different and few elections would have different outcomes even if every eligible voter voted

Overall, large increases in the turn-out in the presidential elections of 2004 and 2008 is attributable to:

intensive registration campaigns

Which of the following is true about the two-party system in the U.S.?

it has continued with a few exceptions since shortly after the nation's founding

The best single predictor of how someone will vote in federal elections is:

party identification

When was universal suffrage for white men achieved?

in the 1840s, in the wake of the triumph of Jacksonian democracy

The following is true about the conflicts to be found among organized interests:

these mirror and sometimes crystallize divisions and uncertainties prevalent among the general public

Candidates and parties trying to win elections have no choice but to:

piece together coalitions out of the major groups that constitute the raw material of politics

By helping office holders plan legislation and assemble legislative coalitions, among other things, lobbyists:

will not so much change minds as activate politicians already on their side

The period between 1883 and 1925 was in many ways the golden age of newspapers, in part because:

they held a monopoly over mass communication and were the only outlet for national political news

messed up

messed up

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