Diet of Worms
held by Charles V against Martin Luther's preachings, decreed no one could read Luther's works
King Louis XIV's palace during French absolutism rule
center of the arts
The port city of Holland, which was a part of the Holy Roman Empire. It became a center of trade later in the Age of Exploration because Holland was a center of banking. Holland was considered one of the "Low Countries" which were the prosperous western areas of the Holy Roman Empire.
(1529) This city is how far Suleiman I got before being turned back in their invasion of Europe and also marked the end of the Ottoman expansion
Treaty signed in Spain that divided newly conquered lands outside of Europe between Spain and Portugal
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat, Located in Belgium, the place where the british army and the prussian army forces attacked the french. Napoleon's final defeat against the British and Prussians
Peter the Great modernized to become the "window to the west"
Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
Spanish, first explorer to circumnavigate the globe
Protestant Reformation leader, wrote the 95 Theses
Louis XIV's tutor, defended divine right of King
first Stuart king of England
French philosopher from 1712-1778 who believed that people are naturally good, but are corrupted by society
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
the theory that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys
The belief that the sun was the center of the solar system and that the earth rotated around it
a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from god.
system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
agreement among all the people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights. John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were two European political philosophers who wrote about this concept.
the concept that there is a universal order built into nature that can guide moral thinking
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Liberty, Equality, Fraternite
national motto of France
the Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
Baldassare Castiglione/qualities of a perfect courtier
The Social Contract
John Jacques Rousseau/citizens give up rights to get rights
Machiavelli/qualities of an effective prince
The Wealth of Nations
written by Adam Smith, promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics
Against the Murderous and Thieving Peasants
In Praise of Folly
Sir Thomas Moore
Essay on the Principle of Population
Thomas Malthus/based on 2 claims: (1) people need food to survive (2) people have a natural desire ro teproduce.
Two Treatises on Government
John Locke/said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property.
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
Voltaire/satirizing society and organized religion in Europe
Thirty Nine Articles
defined the rules of the Anglican Church and followed Protestant doctrine but still accomodated for other English, except the Puritans.
"Here I stand"
"I am the State"
King Louis XIV
"But it does move"
"The Holy Roman Empire is neither holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire."
"A Prince needs only to conquer to maintain his position. The means he has used will be praised by everybody."
"...the state of nature had a law of nature to govern it, which obliges everyone, and reason, which is that law ... not to harm another in life, liberty, and property."
"...to destroy the island of shopkeepers."
Holy Roman Emperor
architect of French absolutism who was prominent church official, served as chief minister to King Louis XIII from 1624- 1642, worked to undermine power of nobles and enhance that of the king, built large bureaucracy, attacked French Calvinists
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
Frederick the Great
enlightened King of Prussia who used the army to strengthen the nation's powers.
the last Stuart to be king of England and Ireland and Scotland
As Lord Protector of England he used his army to control the government and constituted military dictatorship.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico
Erasmus of Rotterdam
He was a Dutch Renaissance humanist and a Catholic theologian. His most famous work is "In Praise of Folly"
Catherine the Great
empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to westernize Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
son of Maria Theresa, liked enlightened despotism, established religios toleration, "Here lies _____ who was unfortunate in everything he undertook."
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789).
English Bill of Rights
Document written by Parliament and agreed on by william and mary of England in 1689, designed to prevent abuse of power by english monarchs; forms the basis for much in american government and politics today
Edict of Nantes
Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
it abolished the Star Chamber and made the levying of new taxes without the consent of Parliament illegal
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. (
Concordat of Bologna
(1516) king of France Francis I now had power to appoint bishops to French Church-major blow to papal influence in France
A series of civil wars in France by nobles against Louis XIV's and Mazarin's authority; they were unable to overthrow Mazarin.
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
link: 95 Theses and Reformation
95 Theses sparked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation
link: Agricultural Revolution and Industrial Revolution
they occurred at the same time
a leader of mercenary soldiers in Renaissance Italy
On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
Duke of Alva
Military leader sent by Phillip to pacify the Low Countries
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
St. Bartholomew's Day
William of Orange
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV
denied Parliament's authority and rejected private ownership of land
They were lead by Puritan John Lilburne. They wanted universal manhood suffrage, equality of representation, a written constitution, and subordination of parliament to a reformed body of voters.
Treaty of Utrecht
this ended the War of the Spanish Succession between France and England
Petition of Right
made by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land
God built the universe and let it run. Clockmaker theory.
Dutch painter, who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus
orphanages that were established to reduce infanticide
the revolution against James II
a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas
Defenestration of Prague
The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
Treaty of Paris
This treaty ended the Seven Years War
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Republic of Virtue
Name of a speech given by Robespierre that laid out his idea that terror must be used in defense of democracy.
Swiss theologian whose sermons began the Reformation in Switzerland (1484-1531)
father of modern conservatism. noted for his emphasis on tradition
commons are fenced off, people look for jobs in the city
Informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
English statesman and philosopher who developed scientific method, empirical method, and inductive reasoning
a trade route that exchanged goods between the West Indies, the American colonies, and West Africa
the business revolution that occurred in Europe after the Middle Ages
Pilgrimage of Grace
Revolt against how everyone had to convert to the Church of England
End of 100 Year's War and the fall of Constantinople to the Turks
Luther posts 95 Theses
England defeated Philip II's Spanish Armada
English Bill of Rights
The Treaty of Utrecht ends the War of Spanish Succession
Treaty of Paris ends Seven Years' War
Congress of Vienna followed the defeat of Napoleon
Sack of Rome by Charles V
Peace of Augsburg ends religious war in Germany; Charles V abdicates
Edict of Nantes
bad times for Russia
The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War
Charles I executed in England