Vocabulary Workshop Level F Unit 1-3

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approbation

(n) the expression of approval or favorable opinion, praise; official approval. SYN: commendation, sanction. ANT: disapproval, condemnation, censure

assuage

(v) to make easier or milder, relieve; to quiet, calm; to put an end to, appease, satisfy, quench. SYN: mitigate, alleviate, slake, allay. ANT: intensify, aggravate, exacerbate

coalition

(n) a combination, union, or merger for some specific purpose. SYN: alliance, league, federation, combine. ANT: splinter group

decadence

(n) decline, decay, or deterioration; a condition or period of decline or decay; excessive self-indulgence. SYN: degeneration, corruption. ANT: rise, growth, development maturation

elicit

(v) to draw forth, bring out from some source (such as another person). SYN: call forth, evoke, extract, educe. ANT: repress quash squelch, stifle

expostulate

(v) to attempt to dissuade someone from some course or decision by earnest reasoning. SYN: protest, remonstrate, complain

hackneyed

(adj) used so often as to lack freshness or originality. SYN: banal, trite, commonplace, corny. ANT: new, fresh, novel, original

hiatus

(n) a gap, opening, break (in the sense of having an element missing). SYN: pause, lacuna. ANT: continuity, continuation

innuendo

(n) a hint, indirect suggestion, or reference (often in a derogatory sense). SYN: insinuation, intimation. ANT: direct statement

intercede

(v) to plead on behalf of someone else; to serve as a third party or to go between in a disagreement. SYN: intervene, mediate

jaded

(adj) wearied, worn-out, dulled (in the sense of being satiated by excessive indulgence). SYN: sated, surfeited, cloyed. ANT: unspoiled, uncloyed

lurid

(adj) causing shock, horror, or revulsion; sensational; pale or sallow in color; terrible or passionate in intensity or lack of restraint. SYN: gruesome, gory, grisly, baleful, ghastly. ANT: pleasant, attractive, appealing, wholesome

meritorious

(adj) worthy, deserving recognition and praise. SYN: praiseworthy, laudable, commendable. ANT: blameworthy, reprehensible, discreditable

petulant

(adj) peevish, annoyed by trifles, easily irritated and upset. SYN: irritable, testy, waspish. ANT: even-tempered, placid, serene, amiable

prerogative

(n) a special right or privilege; a special quality showing excellence. SYN: perquisite, perk

provincial

(adj) pertaining to an outlying area; local; narrow in mind or outlook, countrified in the sense of being limited and backward; of a simple, plain design that originated in the countryside; (n) a person with a narrow point of view; a person from an outlying area; a soldier from a province or colony. SYN: narrow-minded, parochial, insular, naive. ANT: cosmopolitan, catholic, broad-minded

simulate

(v) to make a pretense of, imitate; to show the outer signs of. SYN: feign, pretend, affect

transcend

(v) to rise above or beyond, exceed. SYN: surpass, outstrip

umbrage

(n) shade cast by trees; foliage giving shade; and overshadowing influence or power; offense, resentment; a vague suspicion. SYN: irritation, pique, annoyance. ANT: pleasure, delight, satisfaction

unctuous

(adj) excessively smooth or smug; trying too hard to give an impression of earnestness, sincerity, or piety; fatty, oily; pliable. SYN: mealymouthed, servile, fawning, greasy. ANT: gruff, blunt

ameliorate

(v) to improve, make better, correct a flaw or shortcoming. SYN: amend, better. ANT: worsen, aggravate, exacerbate

aplomb

(n) poise, assurance, great self-confidence; perpendicularity. SYN: composure, self-possession, levelheadedness. ANT: confusion, embarrassment, abashment

bombastic

(adj) pompous or overblown in language; full of high-sounding words intended to conceal lack a of ideas. SYN: inflated, highfalutin, high-flown, pretentious. ANT: unadorned, simple, plain, austere

callow

(adj) without experience; immature, not fully developed; lacking sophistication and poise; without feathers. SYN: green, raw, unfledged, inexperienced. ANT: mature, grown-up, polished, sophisticated

drivel

(n) saliva or mucus flowing from the mouth or nose; foolish, aimless talk or thinking; nonsense; (v) to let saliva flow from the mouth; to utter nonsense or childish twaddle; to waste or fritter away foolishly. SYN: balderbash, hogwash, tommyrot, slaver

epitome

(n) a summary, condensed account; an instance that represents a larger reality. SYN: abstract, digest, model, archetype

exhort

(v) to urge strongly, advise, earnestly. SYN: entreat, implore, adjure. ANT: discourage, advise against, deprecate

ex officio

(adj, adv) by virtue of holding a certain office.

infringe

(v) to violate, trespass, go beyond recognized bounds. SYN: encroach, impinge, intrude, poach. ANT: stay in bounds

ingratiate

(v) to make oneself agreeable and thus gain favor or acceptance by others (sometimes used in a critical or derogatory sense). SYN: cozy up to, curry favor with. ANT: alienate, humiliate oneself, mortify oneself

interloper

(n) one who moves in where he or she in not wanted or has no right to be, an intruder. SYN: trespasser, meddler, buttinsky

intrinsic

(adj) belonging to someone or something by its very nature, essential, inherent; originating in a bodily organ or part. SYN: immanent, organic. ANT: extrinsic, external, outward

inveigh

(v) to make a violent attack in words, express strong disapproval. SYN: rail, harangue, fulminate, remonstrate. ANT: acclaim, glorify, extol

lassitude

(n) weariness of body or mind, lack of energy. SYN: fatigue, lethargy, torpor, languor. ANT: energy, vitality, animation, liveliness

millennium/ millennia

(n) a period of one thousand years; a period of great joy; Syn: chiliad, golden age, prosperity, peace; Ant: doomsday, day of judgement

occult

(adj) mysterious, magical, supernatural; secret, hidden from view; not detectable by ordinary means; (v) to hide, conceal; eclipse; (n) matters involving the supernatural. SYN: supernatural, esoteric, abstruse, arcane. ANT: mundane, common, public, exoteric

permeate

(v) to spread through, penetrate, soak through

precipitate

(v) to fall as moisture; to cause or bring about suddenly; to hurl down from a great height; to give distinct form to; (adj) characterized by excessive haste; (n) moisture; the product of an action or process. SYN: provoke, produce, reckless, impetuous. ANT: wary, cautious, circumspect

stringent

(adj) strict, severe; rigorously or urgently binding or compelling; sharp or bitter to the taste. SYN: stern, rigorous, tough, urgent, imperative. ANT: lenient, mild, lax, permissive

surmise

(v) to think or believe without certain supporting evidence; to conjecture or guess; (n) likely idea that lacks definite proof. SYN: infer, gather, inference, presumption

abominate

(v) to have intense dislike or hatred for. SYN: loathe, abhor, despise, detest. ANT: relish, savor, cherish, esteem

acculturation

(n) the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another; the resultant blend. SYN: adaptation

adventitious

(adj) resulting from chances; not essential. SYN: extrinsic, incidental, fortuitous. ANT: essential, intrinsic, inherent, congenital.

ascribe

(v) to assign or refer to (as a cause or source), attribute. SYN: impute, credit, attribute

circuitous

(adj) roundabout, not direct. SYN: indirect, meandering, winding. ANT: straight, direct, as the crow flies

commiserate

(v) to sympathize with, have pity or sorrow for, share a feeling of distress. SYN: feel sorry for, empathize. ANT: feel no sympathy for

enjoin

(v) to direct or order; to prescribe a course of action in a an authoritative way; to prohibit. SYN: bid, charm, command, adjure. ANT: allow, permit

expedite

(v) to make easy, cause to progress faster. SYN: accelerate, facilitate, speed up. ANT:hinder, hamper, impede, obstruct

expiate

(v) to make amends, make up for; to avert. SYN: redeem, make amends for, atone, make reparation

ferment

(n) a state of great excitement, agitation, or turbulence; (v) to be in or work into such a state; to produce alcohol by chemical action. SYN: commotion, turmoil, unrest. ANT: peace and quiet, tranquility, placidity

inadvertent

(adj) resulting from or marked by lack of attention; unintentional, accidental. SYN: accidental, unconsidered. ANT: deliberate, intentional, premeditated

nominal

(adj) existing in name only, not real; too small to be considered or taken seriously. SYN: titular, token, trifling, inconsequential. ANT: real, actual, exorbitant, excessive

noncommittal

(adj) not decisive or definite; unwilling to take a clear position or to say yes or no. SYN: cagey, uninformative, playing, it safe, playing it close to the vest. ANT: positive, definite, committed

peculate

(v) to steal something that has been given into one's trust; to take improperly for one's own use. SYN: embezzle, defraud, misappropriate

proclivity

(n) a natural or habitual inclination or tendency (especially of human character or behavior). SYN: natural bent, penchant, propensity. ANT: inability or incapacity

sangfroid

(n) composure or coolness, especially in trying circumstances. SYN: poise, self-assurance, equanimity. ANT: excitability, hysteria, flappability

seditious

(adj) resistant to lawful authority; having the purpose of overthrowing an established government. SYN: mutinous, rebellious, subversive. ANT: supportive, loyal, faithful, allegiant

tenuous

(adj) thin, slender, not dense; lacking clarity or sharpness; of slight importance or significance; lacking a sound basis, poorly supported. SYN: flimsy, insubstantial, vague, hazy. ANT: strong, solid, substantial, valid

vitriolic

(adj) bitter, sarcastic; highly caustic or biting (like a strong acid). SYN: withering, acerbic, mordant. ANT: bland, saccharine, honeyed, sugary

wheedle

(v) to use coaxing or flattery to gain some desired end. SYN: cajole, inveigle, soft-soap, sweet-talk. ANT: coerce, browbeat, intimidate, strong-arm

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