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Ethics & Society Final Exam

True or False: According to Epicurus, one should seek pleasure that is as intense as possible

False

True or False: Epicurus claims that the end (or goal) of all our actions is to treat each other fairly and decently

False

True or False: Milgram's Authority experiments show that most people tend to respect someone they think of as a legitimate authority

True

John Stuart Mill thought that the only intrinsically valuable thing is...

Happiness

What is our one moral duty, according to utilitarians?

Maximize well-being

According to Epicurus, one should seek pleasure...

Only when it will not result in greater amounts of pain later

GEtting a vaccine in order to prevent illness is an example of something that is...

instrumentally valuable

What sort of diet does Epicurus recommend in order to attain happiness?

A gourmet luxury diet,
a simple and inexpensive diet,
a diet consisting only of foods one had grown oneself

Epicurus claims that the end (or goal) of all our actions is...

to be free from pain and fear

In philosophy, an argument is...

a chain of reasoning consisting of a set of reasons that supports some conclusion

Which of the following does Epicurus think is NOT conducive to a pleasant life?

Enjoying lots of fine food and drink

According to virtue ethics, the fundamental moral question is...

What kind of person should I be?

According to Nozick, plugging in to the experience machine would be a kind of ...

Suicide

Mill defines happiness as...

Pleasure and the absence of pain

How can we determine whether one pleasure (A) is more valuable than another pleasure (B), according to Mill?

Pleasure A is preferred to pleasure B by most people who are acquainted with both

Aristotle calls virtue a "mean" because...

Virtue is a matter of avoiding excess and deficiency

Kazez argues that happiness is...

One of the things important for a good life

Kazez belives that autonomy is...

Not valued by everyone but always a good thing

True or False: Norcross uses the story of Fred to argue that is morally distinguishable from the behavior of people who consume factory-farmed meat?

True

True or False: If cows have moral standing, then it is always impermissible to put a human interest ahead of the life and interest of the cow

False

Norcross uses the argument from marginal cases. This argument claims that

Some animals have rational capacities to the degree that some humans do

True or False: Someone who takes a sentientist view argues that all living things capable of feeling pain deserve moral consideration

True

True or False: A moral agent can be held morally responsible for both good and bad actions

True

True or False: Anthropocentrism is defined as the view that all forms of life are equally valuable, and that humanity is not special in any way

True

What is a normative claim?

A claim about how things ought to be

Kant claims that the only thing that can be said to be good "without limitation" is ...

the good will

Kant's categorical imperative requires that we...

Treat human beings as ends in themselves

True or False: A moral agent is capable of moral reflection

True

True or False: Someone who takes a sentientist view argues that all living things capable of feeling pain deserve moral reflection

True

True or False: Wendell Berry argues that being passive consumers of food is incompatible with being free and living in a democracy

True

In Norcross's opening story, Fred tortures puppies...

Because this gives him a compound that enhances his gustatory pleasure

Kant claimed that

acting immorally is always irrational

According to Kant, actions have moral worth only if...

they are done from duty

According to Hill, "proper humility" consists of

-A sense of relative importance with respect to other humans
-Self-acceptance

According to virtue ethics, emotions...

Play a crucial role in moral understanding

Rachels concludes that euthanasia is...

Sometimes morally acceptable because it promotes the best interest of all involved and violates no one's rights

Norcross uses the argument from marginal cases. This argument claims that...

some animals have rational capacities to the degree that some humans do

True or False: Someone who takes a sentientist view argues that all living things deserve moral consideration

False

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