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lipids

Macromolecules made mainly from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; includes fats; used for long-term storage of energy and carbon, and for building structure in the cell membranes; fatty acids and glycerol make up the simple fats most common in our diets

triglycerides

Lipids containing a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid chains; chemical form in which most fats exist in food and in the body

unsaturated fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms; tend to be oily liquids at room temperature; found in plants

saturated fat

a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms; tend to be solid at room temperature; found in animals

phospholipid

A lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids; consists of a hydrophilic polar head and two non-polar hydrophobic tails; forms cell membranes.

steroids

Many of this type of lipid serve as chemical messengers or as parts of the cell membrane; examples include cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen

protein

Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth, repair, and to make up enzymes; a polymer made of amino acids

amino acids

Compounds with an amino group (-NH₂) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end; the monomers that make up a protein

enzyme

A protein that is used as a catalyst (speeds up a chemical reaction)

peptide bond

A covalent bond between the acid group of one molecule and the amino group of another.

nucleic acids

Polymers assembled from individual nucleotides; used to store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information; the two kinds of nucleic acids are ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

nucleotide

Monomer that makes up nucleic acids; consists of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

DNA

Forms the genes; in eukaryotic cells it is found in the cell nucleus and mitochondria; codes for proteins.

RNA

Works with DNA to carry out instructions of the genetic code; carries the code for a protein from the nucleus to the ribosomes; found in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and ribosomes.

adenine

Nitrogen base that pairs with thymine.

thymine

Nitrogen base that pairs with adenine.

mitochondria

The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy (ATP).

ribosome

Small particle of RNA and protein that produces protein following instructions from the nucleus.

hydrophilic

Water-loving.

hydrophobic

Water-hating.

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