An investigation of financial statement designed to determine their fairness in relation to generally accepted accounting principles.
Preparation of income tax returns and anticipating the tax effects of business transactions and structuring them in such a way as to minimize the income tax burden.
Determining the cost of certain business activities and interpreting cost information.
American Institute of CPAs
A professional accounting organization of certified public accountants that engages in a variety of activities, including establishing auditing standards for private companies, conducting research, and establishing industry-specific financial reporting standards.
Statement of financial position
Also called the balance sheet
The foundation for all the other elements of internal control, setting the overall tone for the organization.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
The governmental organization that has the legal power to establish accounting principles and financial reporting requirements for publicly held companies in the United States.
Institute of Management Accounts
A professional accounting organization that intends to influence the concepts and ethical practice of management accounting and financial management.
Providing information about the financial resources, obligations, and activities of an economic entity that is intended for use primarily by external decision makers-investors and creditors.
Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
A private-sector organization that is responsible for determining generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.
An activity statement that shows details and results of the company's profit-related activities for a period of time.
A landmark piece of securities law, designed to improve the effectiveness of corporate financial reporting through enhanced accountability of auditors, boards of directors, and management.
Information and communication
The organization's process for capturing operational, financial, and compliance-related information necessary to run the business, and communicating that information downstream (from management to employees), upstream (from employees to management, and across the organization.
Information that is intended to meet the needs of multiple users that have an interest in the financial activities of an enterprise rather than tailored to the specific information needs of one user.
The study of internal control structure and evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of many different aspects of the enterprise's operations.
Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission
A voluntary private-sector organization dedicated to improving the quality of financial reporting through business ethics, effective internal controls, and corporate governance.
American Accounting Association
A professional accounting organization consisting primarily of accounting educators that is dedicated to improving accounting education, research, and practice.
A process designed to provide reasonable assurance that the organization produces reliable financial reports, complies with applicable laws and regulations, and conducts its operations in an efficient and effective manner.
Certificate in Management Accounting
A professional designation issued by the Institute of Management Accountants signifying expertise in management accounting.
Policies and procedures that management puts in place to address the risks identified during the assessment process.
The process of evaluating the effectiveness of an organization's system of internal control over time, including both ongoing management and supervisory activities and periodic separate evaluations.
Certified Public Accountant
An accountant who is licensed by a state after meeting rigorous education, experience, and examination requirements.
Generally accepted accounting practices
Principles that provide the framework for determining what information is to be included in financial statements and how that information in presented.
Individuals who use accounting information from within an organization (for example, board of directors, chief financial officer, plant managers, store managers.
Government Accountability Office
A federal government agency that audits many other agencies of the federal government and other organizations that do business with the federal government and reports it's findings to Congress.
Providing information that is intended primarily for use by internal management in decision making required to run the business.
Certificate in Internal Auditing
A professional designation issued by the Institute of Internal Auditors signifying expertise in internal auditing.
A plan of financial operations for some future period.
Individuals and other enterprises that have a financial interest in the reporting enterprise but that are not involved in the day-to-day operations of that enterprise (e.g., owners, creditors, labor unions, suppliers, customers).
Internal Revenue Service
A government agency that handles millions of income tax returns filed by individuals and businesses and performs audit functions to verify the data contained in those returns.
Statement of cash flows
An activity statement that shows the details of the company's activities involving cash during a period of time.
Return of investment
The repayment to an investor of the amount original invested in another enterprise.
The qualities of being complete, unbroken, unimpaired, sound, honest, and sincere.
A position statement that shows where the company stands in financial terms at a specific date. (Also called the statement of financial position.)
Includes the corporate structures and processes for overseeing a company's affairs, for example, the board of directors and the company's internal control processes.
Return on investment
The payment of an amount (interest, dividends) for using another's money.
The clerical dimension of accounting that includes recording the routine transactions and day-to-day record keeping of an enterprise.
Institute of Internal Auditors
A professional accounting organization that is dedicated to the promotion and development of the practice of internal accounting.
A process of identifying, analyzing, and managing those risks that pose a threat to the achievement of the organization's objectives.
A monetary declaration of what is believed to be true about an enterprise.
International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)
The group responsible for creating and promoting International Financial Reporting Standards. (IFRSs).
Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB)
A quasi-governmental body charged with oversight of the public accounting profession. The PCAOB sets auditing standards for audits of publicly traded companies.
Cash Flow Prospects
The likelihood that an enterprise will be able to proved an investor with both a return on the investor's investment and the return of that investment.