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Why did Mississippi politician Jefferson Davis object in the 1850s to the original design of the Statue of Freedom that now adorns the U.S. Capitol dome?

Its use of an ancient Roman liberty cap on "Freedom" raised a touchy matter about slaves' longing for freedom.

Why did slavery become more central to American politics in the 1840s?

Territorial expansion raised the question of whether new lands should be free or slave.

When Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821:

its Native American population was relatively large compared to its non-Indian population.

The term "Californios" referred in the 1830s and 1840s to ____________ in California.

Mexican cattle ranchers

Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren rejected adding Texas to the United States because:

the presence of slaves there would reignite the issue of slavery, and they preferred to avoid it.

"Fifty-four forty or fight" referred to demands for American control of:


James Polk had four clearly defined goals when he entered the White House.

settle the slavery dispute

During the Mexican War:

for the first time, the U.S. troops occupied a foreign capital.

Who questioned President Polk's right to declare war by introducing a resolution to Congress requesting the president to specify the precise spot where blood had first been shed?

Abraham Lincoln

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 provided for all of the following EXCEPT:

U.S. control of all of the Oregon Country.

Which of the following statements related to ethnicity was true in California in the 1850s?

Thousands of Indian children were declared orphans and treated as slaves.

During the 1850s, 80 percent of the world's gold came from two places that experienced gold rushes at about the same time, California and:


What American naval officer negotiated a treaty that opened two Japanese ports to U.S. ships in 1854?

Oliver H. Perry

The Free soil party

demonstrated that antislavery sentiment had spread far beyond abolitionist ranks.

Which of the following countries did NOT go through some kind of popular upheaval in 1848?


Which of the following was NOT a provision of the Compromise of 1850?

The territories of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada would be created.

The opponents of the Compromise of 1850:

received a boost from President Zachary Taylor.

The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850:

gave new powers to federal officers to override local law enforcement.

The controversy over the arrest of Anthony Burns in 1854 shows:

the unpopularity of the Fugitive Slave Act in parts of the North.

Stephen Douglas's motivation for introducing the Kansas-Nebraska Act was to:

boost efforts to build a transcontinental railroad.

By 1856, the Republican Party included individuals who had been, until rather recently, members of each of the following political groups EXCEPT:


The Republican free labor ideology:

led to the argument by Abraham Lincoln and William Seward that free labor and slave labor were essentially incompatible.

The Republican Party founded in the 1850s strongly endorsed the same policy about slavery in the territories that ____________ had begun advocating in 1846.

David Wilmot

The Dred Scott decision of the U.S. Supreme Court:

declared Congress could not ban slavery from territories.

The Lecompton Constitution was the:

proslavery constitution proposed for Kansas.

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