Development Psychology Final

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______ are the biggest substance abusers, but their illegal drug use drops much faster than their cigarette smoking or binge drinking

Emerging adults

The abbreviation ADL refers to:

activities of daily life

The ability to enjoy life is measured by:

mobility and vitality.

Abraham Maslow maintains that older adults are:

more likely than younger people to reach self-actualization

According to Erikson, after the stage of intimacy versus isolation comes:

generativity versus stagnation

According to Erikson, each new experience throughout life requires:

a reassessment of identity

According to Erikson, integrity versus despair is the focus of:

late adulthood

According to Fowler's religious stages, faith, like other aspects of cognition, progresses from a(n) ______ view of life to a(n) ______ view.

simple, self centered, one sided, complex, unselfish

According to many developmentalists, the key to successful aging is:

the capacity to accommodate to changes over time.

According to recent statistics, approximately how many emerging adults reach the standard of 30 minutes of exercise, five days a week?

two-thirds

According to Sternberg, the three components of love are passion, intimacy, and:

Commitment

According to the textbook, what is one of the changes that happens to the brain during senescence?

Cerebral blood circulates more slowly

Active engagement (volunteering and political activity) in society is related to:

gender and ethnicity

After a decade or two, most married couples find that:

happiness increases as children become more independent

After the children are grown, most married couples:

have adequate time for their relationship

The age group least likely to be involved in motor vehicle accidents is people aged:

55-64

All smoking diseases are:

dose and duration sensitive

Although it is still very common, the incidence of adult obesity has not increased in the United States since the year ______.

2000

Analytic intelligence involves:

abstract planning, focused attention, and verbal and logical skills

Antioxidants can be found in:

vitamins A, C, and E.

The antithesis of disengagement theory is ______ theory.

activity

As we age, the resting heart rate:

remains stable

Assumptions about the purpose of sex are usually mutual when partners:

were raised in the same religion and culture.

At every age, working quickly:

decreases accuracy

At one time, such occupations as "housewife" or "nonworking mom" were known as:

women's work

Autopsies show that the brains of Alzheimer victims:

have a proliferation of plaques and tangles

The average income has ______ in the United States in the past 50 years.

doubled

The average life expectancy for men is ______ years, for women ______ years.

76; 81

Average well-being increases in emerging adulthood, as does the incidence of:

psychopathology.

B-cells defend the body against invaders by:

producing antibodies against bacteria and viruses

The beginning of adulthood is now considered to be:

age 25

The belief that family members should be close and supportive of one another even if it means sacrificing individual freedom and success is referred to as:

familism

Between the ages of 18 and 27, the average adult in the United States:

has eight jobs

Between the ages of 25 and 42, the average worker in the United States has ______ separate employers.

5

A body mass index between ______ and ______ is considered normal.

19; 25

Carol Gilligan would probably say that choices about which of the following aspects of life are most likely to advance moral thinking?

child rearing

The challenge of determining the existence of a g is:

the lack of pure measures of intelligence

Changes observed in college students over the past 30 years include more students:

specializing in business and the professions

The changes of primary aging are:

universal

Colleges that make use of their diversity by including ______ help students stretch their understanding not only of differences and similarities among people but also of themselves.

cooperative education, class assignments and discussions, learning communities....all of the answers are correct

Companionate grandparents are:

happy to be independent of the demands of child rearing

Compared to adolescents, approximately how many adults consider themselves close to their siblings?

twice as many

Compared to younger adults, older adults generally:

take longer to fall asleep

The condition known as "fragile bones" is called:

osteoporosis

A cultural factor that may increase longevity is:

being integrated into the community.

A dialectical thinker is likely to recognize the:

changing nature of human relationships

The divide between what is sensed and what is not is known as the:

sensory threshold

The dominant traits of commitment are:

mutual caregiving and dedication

During adulthood, fluid intelligence:

decreases

During young adulthood, all body systems—including the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and sexual-reproductive systems—function:

optimally

Effectively coping with stress may:

strengthen the immune system

Elder maltreatment is:

likely to cause isolation, fear, and dependence

Elements of wisdom include:

a broad practical approach to life and deep insight

An example of homeostasis is the:

increase in heart rate and breathing that occurs during physical exertion

Experts tend to be intuitive, automatic, ______, and ______ in their thinking.

strategic; flexible

The fact that many older people begin to demonstrate an interest in painting, music, or woodworking supports the idea that older people:

Develop an appreciation for the aesthetic

Factors that contribute to a long life include:

lifelong work and a diet rich in fresh vegetables

Families with stepchildren, foster children, or adoptive children experience greater challenges in developing secure attachments, because:

some children remain strongly attached to their birth parents

Familism may be defined as the:

belief that family members take care of each other

Favoring what feels right over what makes intellectual sense is typical of ______ faith.

synthetic-conventional

The first phase of college students' thinking is:

believing in the existence of clear and perfect truths

The first stage of Alzheimer disease is characterized by:

absentmindedness about recent events

Following a series of major stressors, reactions to stress often include:

increased resilience

For a typical middle-aged adult, intelligence increases:

in the specific areas that reflect his or her interest

For people who reach late adulthood in good health, the most important determinant of longevity may be:

their activities and attitudes

For the average individual in late adulthood, traditional tests of intelligence demonstrate that:

cognitive abilities decline

For which of the following types of couples does the developmental pattern of intimacy, commitment, and passion differ from that of others?

couples in arranged marriages

Friendships between men are less intimate than those between women because:

men are more hesitant to express their vulnerabilities

Grandparents who are emotionally distant but who are honored, respected, and obeyed by grandchildren are considered to have which of the following grandparenting styles?

remote

The Hayflick limit is a natural limit to the:

number of times cells can divide.

Heterogamy refers to marriage between two people of:

Dissimilar ethnicities, interests, attitudes, and religion.

How do friends differ from family members?

friends are chosen for qualities that make them good companions

Identify the true statement about developmentalists' view of faith and religion.

It progresses from a self-centered perspective to a many-sided, altruistic view

If a man talks about his problems to a male friend, he is most likely to expect:

practical solutions

If you want to extend your life by slowing down the aging process, the most promising method is:

calorie restriction

Immune cells manufactured in the thymus gland are:

T Cells

Implementation is quitting a habit according to plan. When is implementation most successful?

when tackling one habit at a time.

In 2010, what percentage of people over the age of 65 had broadband Internet connections at home?

31

In a typical family, the "kinkeeper" is most likely to be:

a middle-aged mother

In comparison with adolescent thinking, adult thinking requires more:

flexibility

In demand/withdraw interactions, women tend to be more ______ and men more ______.

demanding; withdrawing

In one Defining Issues Test (DIT) the dilemma was the following: "A news reporter must decide whether to publish some old personal information that will damage a political candidate." The Netherlands research cited in the textbook found that:

for emerging adults, moral thinking may produce moral behavior

In terms of biosocial development, the beginning of adulthood was previously considered to be:

age 18 or 21

In the CARDIA study that followed 18- to 30-year-olds into middle age, those who were the least fit:

were four times as likely to have diabetes and high blood pressure 15 years later

In the first year of college, learning and cognitive growth depend mostly on:

the student's motivation and engagement with education

In the United States, after age 35 the life span increases ______ years for each year of education.

1.7

In the United States, what percentage of the labor force is female?

50

A large university is attempting to reduce student alcohol and nicotine use. A survey was distributed to all students, and the results were published in the student newspaper. Fewer students than anticipated drank and smoked, much to many students' surprise. The university conducted this research using the:

social norms approach

A main symptom in Lewy body dementia is loss of:

inhibition

A major safeguard of health, vitality, and reduced rates of chronic illness and disability is:

high socioeconomic status

Many researchers believe that Alzheimer disease actually begins ______ year(s) before diagnosis.

10 - 20

Max is considered to be an emerging adult searching for his vocational identity. He has dropped in and out of college several times between the ages of 18 and 27, and he has held:

eight jobs

Maximum life span is defined as the:

upper limit to which members of a species can live

The measure of health most important to the quality of life is:

vitality

The memory for recalling names tends to ___________ with age, while memory for vocabulary tends to _______________ with age.

decrease; increase

Moral values are powerfully affected by circumstances including:

national background and culture

Most adults reach their peak of intellectual ability between the ages of ______ and ______.

40; 60

The most advanced cognitive process is:

dialectical thought

The most basic statistic regarding health is:

mortality

The most common cause of dementia is:

Alzheimer 's disease

The most common time for males and females to have a baby is during:

young adulthood.

Most contemporary grandparents in the United States prefer which style?

companionate

A new idea that integrates an original idea and its opposite is referred to as a(n):

synthesis

The notion of the sandwich generation:

is not very accurate.

The notion that family members tend to be affected by all aspects of each other's lives describes:

linked lives

Of the following, the best example of fluid intelligence is:

The ability to quickly perceive logical relationships between words.

An older adult would probably experience the most difficulty remembering:

the facts surrounding the 1948 presidential election

One biological reason why women tend to live longer, healthier lives than men is that:

the second X chromosome or extra estrogen protects them

One measure of health is morbidity, which:

includes statistics on both acute and chronic illnesses

Osteoporosis not only results from primary and secondary aging, but also from too:

much smoking

Overall brain slowdown is evident in which of the following ways?

slower reaction time

Parkinson disease is the cause of what percentage of all cases of dementia?

3

The part of the brain that shrinks more with age than do other parts of the brain is the:

prefrontal cortex

Passion is fueled in part by:

uncertainty and risk

Perry found that over the four years of their college careers, students:

progress through nine levels of complexity in their thinking

The person who is most likely to become a kinkeeper is a:

daughter

A person's set point is affected by:

age, genes, diet, hormones, and exercise

Practical intelligence would be most needed to:

understand the needs of family members

The ratio of a person's weight to height is that person's:

BMI

The requirement for membership in AARP is that the person is:

over 50

Research in sensory functions in later adulthood indicates that:

most visual and auditoy losses can be compensated for.

Research indicates that having a partner and children is:

not essential for happiness in late adulthood

Research studies on alcohol use have shown that:

moderate use of alcohol may increase longevity

Researchers on obesity agree that in middle age:

metabolism slows down by a third

Schaie found that scores on tests of practical intelligence were steady from age 20 to age:

70

Stereotype threat is a:

form of self-predudice

The style of grandparenting that generally brings the most satisfaction to grandparents in the United States is the ______ style.

companionate

Symptoms of depression do include:

trouble concentrating and sleeping.

The tens of millions of Americans who live in neglected neighborhoods and who are of low socioeconomic status:

tend to live as much as 30 years less than the 10 million healthiest Americans.

The term "organ reserve" refers to:

the extra capacity available to an organ when subjected to stress.

The term dementia literally means:

out of mind

Thinking that occurs without deliberate, conscious thought is ______ processing.

automatic

The three major stratification categories that can limit choice at every stage of life are:

age, gender, and ethnicity

Two important correlates of vitality are:

personality and national culture

A type of identity that is almost impossible to achieve during adolescence is:

vocational identity

Using a drug in a quantity or a manner that harms physical, cognitive, or psychosocial well-being is called drug:

abuse.

Vascular dementia is caused by:

insufficient supply of blood to the brain.

What happens to bones with age?

The become more porous

What is an important modifier of cognitive decline in late adulthood?

training in cognitive skills

What is enmeshment?

parents always knowing what their emerging adult children are doing or thinking?

What is one benefit to workers being able to choose their own schedules?

happiness

What is the chief form that generativity takes?

establishing and guiding the next generation

What is the most common reversible cause of dementia symptoms?

depression

What is the term for the phenomenon that happens when a person's resolve to break a habit fades when faced with stress?

attention myopia

What percentage of elders say they are abused?

5

What percentage of older adults volunteer in political campaigns?

2

What proportion of adults over the age of 65 do no volunteer work?

3/4

When a woman talks about her problems with a friend, she usually wants:

sympathy or understanding

When developmentalists use the term "expert," they usually mean a person who:

is significantly better than others at performing a certain task

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