Physical Science- Chemistry

100 terms by kathleen_j_post 

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A compound is not...

substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units

The smallest unit of an element that can exist alone..

an atom

The smallest part of a compound that can exist and still retain it's properties

molecule

What determines the chemincal properties of an atom?

Valence electrons

"Atoms attempt to acquire an outer orbital with eight electrons" is a statement of the

Octet Rule

Atoms that achieve an octet by sharing electrons form

covalent bonds

The electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions is called a (an)

Ionic Bond

The energy released during the formation of an ionic bond is

Heat of formation

What kind of bond has unequal sharing of bonding electrons?

Polar covalent

Pure substances that cannot be broken down into anything simpler are

elements

An ion can be described as an element or compound that

gains or loses electrons

You know that a chemical reaction is taking place if

chemical bonds are formed and broken

The electrons that participate in chemical bonding are the

valence electrons

Which type of chemical bond is formed by a transfer of electrons?

ionic

Which type of chemical bond is formed between two atoms by the sharing of electrons?

Covalent

What type of compounds are salts, such as sodium chloride?

ionic compounds

Which combination of elements forms crystalline solids that will dissolve in water, producing a solution of ions that can conduct an electric current?

Metal and Nonmetal

In a single covalent bond between two atoms, a

pair of electrons, one from each atom is shared

A covalent bond in which there is an unequal sharing of bonding electrons is a

Polar covalent bond

An inorganic compound made of only two different elements has a systematic name that always ends with the suffix

-ide

Dihydrogen monoxide is the systematic name for a compound that has the common name of

water

Which of the following is not an example of a chemical reaction?

Blending of a vanilla milkshake

Which of the following substances is not a compound?

Neon

Propane gas burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. The reactants in this reaction are propane and

Oxygen

Which is not true of an ionic bond? It involves

Sharing of electrons

A non-metal atom combines with a second non-metal atom. The first non-metal atom

shares electrons with the second non-metal atom.

The combination of non-metals with non-metals forms

Covalent compounds

The relative arrangement of the atoms in a molecule is a (an)

structural formula

What is the meaning of the subscripts in a chemical formula?

number of atoms of an element in a compund

"Atoms are neither created or destroyed in a chemical reaction" is statement of the

Law of conservation of mass

A solid that comes out of solution as result of an ion exchange reaction is called a

precipitate

A balanced chemical equation provides quantitative information about all the following except

Time of reaction

The number of atoms in exactly 12.0 grams of Carbon-12 is called

Avogadro's number

Any substance that contains Avogadro's number of particles is called a

mole

A material that speeds up a chemical reaction without being permanently changed by the reaction is called a

Catalyst

A balanced chemical equation has

the same number of each kind of atom on both sides of the equation

The law of conservation of mass means that

atoms are not lost or destroyed in a chemical reaction

A chemical equation is balanced by changing

coefficients

In a replacement (single displacement) reaction, elements that have the most ability to hold onto their electrons are

The least chemically active

A balanced chemical equation provides all of the following information except

Exchange rate of reactants and products

An ion exchange (double displacement) reaction can be identified by all of the following except

The required addition of heat

A major use for water in the average home is for

toilets

Freshwater is obtained from all the following except

Oceans

A molecule with a positive end and a negative end is called a

polar molecule

The material present in a solution in the largest amount is the

solvent

The relative amount of solute and solvent in a solution is defined as the

concentration

A solution with a state of equilibrium between the dissolving solute and solute coming out of solution is

Saturated

The solubility of most ionic salts in water

Increases with temperature

Ionic substances that dissolve in water and conduct an electric current are called

electrolytes

All of the following are electrolytes except

Sugars

What is an acid when it dissolved in water?

proton donor

The pH scale is based on the concentration of what in solution?

hydronium ions

The products produced in a neutralization reaction are

salt and water

Which of the following is not a solution?

sand

Atmospheric air is a homogeneous mixture of gases that is mostly nitrogen gas. The nitrogen is therefore the

Solvent

A homogeneous mixture is made up of 95% alcohol and 5% water. In this case, water is the

Solute

The solution concentration terms of parts per million (ppm), percent by volume, and percent by weight are concerned with the amount of

Solute in the solution

A concentration of 500 ppm is reported in a new article. This is the same concentration as

0.05 %

According to the label, a bottle of vodka has a 40% by volume concentration. This means the vodka contains 40 mL of pure alcohol

Mixed with water to make 100 mL of vodka

A salt solution has solid salt on the bottom of the container and salt is dissolving at the same rate that is it coming out of solution. You know the solution is

A saturated solution

As the temperature of water decreases, the solubility of CO2 in water

Increases

At what temperature does water have the greatest density?

4 degrees celsius

A certain solid salt is insoluble in water, so the strongest force must be the

Ion-ion force

Which of the following will conduct an electric current?

A water solution of an ionic compound

A water solution of an ionic compound

Pure water

Salt solutions freeze at a lower temperature than pure water because

Ions get in the way of water molecules trying to form ice

Solutions of acids, bases, and salts have what in common? All have

Ions

When a solution of an acid and base are mixed together,

All of the above

A substance that ionizes completely into hydronium ions is known as a

Strong acid

A scale of values that expresses the hydronium ion concentration of a solution is known as

The pH scale

Substance A has a pH of 2 and a substance B has a pH of 3. This means

Substance A is 10 times more acidic than substance B

Water is a (an)

Polar covalent compound

Salt is spread on icy roads because it

lowers the freezing point of water

A solution has a pH of 9. This means that the solution is

Basic

An orgainic compound consisting only of carbon and hydrogen is called a (an)

Hydrocarbon

Carbon-to-carbon bonds are

covalent

Compounds with the same molecular formulas but with different structures are called

Isomers

Hydrocarbons with double bonds are the

alkene

A hydrocarbon with a carbon-to-carbon triple bond is an

Alkynes

Hydrocarbons that have one to four carbon atoms are

gases

The process where large hydrocarbons are converted into smaller ones is called

cracking

The atom or group of atoms in an organic molecule that is the site of a chemical reaction is called the

functional group

The hydroxyl, -OH, functional group is found in

alcohols

An organic compound is a compound that

contains carbon, whether it was formed by a living thing or not

There are millions of organic compounds but only thousands of inorganic compounds because

carbon atoms can combine with up to four other atoms including other carbon atoms

Isomers have

different chemical and physical properties

Petroleum is believed to have formed mostly from the anaerobic decomposition of buried

plankton and algae

The R in ROH represents

a hydrocarbon group with a name ending in -yl

The OH in ROH represents

A functional group

What is the proof of a "wine cooler" that is 5 percent alcohol by volume?

10 proof

A protein is a polymer formed from the linking of many

amino acid molecules

Fats from animals and oils from plants have the general structure of a (an)

Ester

Liquid oils from plants can be converted to solids by adding what to the molecule?

hydrogen

Many synthetic polymers become a problem in the environment because they

do not readily decompose and tend to accumulate

An organic molecule that does not contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms is called

unsaturated

Aromatic hydrocarbons are often used as

solvents

The rate of combustion of gasoline is quantified by

octane rating

The organic acid that is found in sour milk, pickles, and in your muscles as a product of carbohydrate metabolism is

lactic acid

What are the organic compounds that are used in perfumes and for artificial flavors?

esters

Sugars, starches, and cellulose belong to which class of organic compounds?

Carbohydrates

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