A motor movement or vocalization that is non-rhythmic, rapid, repeated, stereotyped, and sudden is known as a
what is true about major depression?
1. It affects people of all ages, income, races, and cultures.
2. It is a disturbance of mood and can last for weeks, months, or even years at a time.
3. It can include changes in sleep, eating and weight, motor activity, concentration, and interests.
Marla hears voices inside of her head that tell her do certain things (like burn down her house or drive her car into oncoming traffic). These voices are an example of
In the animation, Valerie was diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia. As part of that disorder, she believed that people were plotting to hurt her and her family. Which of the following types of delusions does that represent?
delusions of persecution
Antianxiety drugs reduce the level of anxiety a person experiences and increase feelings of:
Drug therapies for psychological disorders have their effect primarily by
altering the operation of neurotransmitters and neurons.
Antipsychotic drugs used to treat psychological disorders do their work by
regulating the activity in neural circuits related to dopamine.
Which of the following statements regarding antidepressant drugs is TRUE?
SSRIs may increase the risk of suicide among children and adolescents.
Michael has had several episodes of manic behavior in his life. He is now taking a drug that he must continue for the rest of his life to prevent future episodes of mania. Most likely, Michael is taking
Recently a student was assaulted. Since then, she is nervous, overreacts to ordinary stimuli, and has trouble getting to sleep. Her psychiatrist prescribes a medication for her, which most likely is in which category?
Carlos is very depressed, and the danger of suicide is imminent. He is not responding to the drugs normally used to treat depression. Which of the following treatments is most likely to prove helpful in reducing Carlos' depression and suicidal behavior?
Social psychologists have found that performance in any given situation may be influenced by
reacting to self fullfilling prophecies
Social psychologists fear that awareness of a negative stereotype may cause someone's performance
decline, proving the stereotype true.
Axis 1: Clinical Disorders
disorders that produce stress and impair functioning.
(COME AND GO)
Axis 2:personality disorders/mental retardation
enduring rigid behavior patterns
pervasive-with you for life
must have many symptoms for at least 2 weeks
must affect your ability to deal with every day tasks
women are how many times more likely to attempt suicide?How many more times are many successful?
Seasonal Affective Disorder(SAD)
experience depression only during decreased light
prevalent in alaska
treatment: sit in UV lights for several days, melatonin for sleep.
combines depressive and manic episodes,
ex. highs and lows of depression and elation.
hyperactive, racing thoughts, happiness, energy,nothing can stop you, can be very creative, high output and poor quality
causes of mood disorders
biological and enviornmental
-brain and genetics- lack of serotonin-treated with ssri-zoloft.
-more likely if it is within your family.
-stress, loss of loved one, failure.
can come from a past event or have no cause at all
ex. being afraid of a cat because it scratched you when you were 5.
being afraid of clowns for no reason.
severe sympathetic nervous system arousal
ex. racing heart, sweaty palms, feels like it could last forever.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
a continual overanxious state-worried and tense, arousal of sympathetic nervous system at lower levels
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
obsessions: things your mind cycles on- rant control
compulsions:how you deal with obsessions
ex. washing hands until they bleed.
causes of anxiety disorders
psych and bio
frontal loves or active when in anxious state
patients are very responsive to certain drugs.
where sense of reality is impaired, include delusions, hallucinations, paranoia
ex schizophrenia, early signs in kids doesnt completely manifest til college aged(25)
symptoms include-though disturbance, withdrawal from others
patients have blank expression and scan stay in same position without moving for hours, extreme withdrawal
causes of schizophrenia
1. gentics-family history
no family history-1/100
identical twin- 1/2
2.dopamine-schizos have high levels of dopamine
3. brain abmnormalities-low frontal activity and high thalamus activity
4.viral infection in prenatal development
5. enviornmental factors
disorders involving disruptions in a persons; memory, consciousness, or identity.
2 main types dissociative fugue(amnesia/new identity) and dissociative identity(multiple personality disorder)
85% less expected body weight
refusal to eat or gain weight
90% girls in high socioeconomic groups
amenorhea-3 months no period
medical complications of anorexia/bulimia
anorexia-osteoporosis,kidney failure,lunugo-fuzzy hair all over body,heart attack, death
bulimia-tooth decay, vomit blood, bowel problems, asophigal tears
psychological difficulties that take on a physical (somatic) form but which there is no medical cause
a disorder in which people have constant fear of illness and preoccupation with their health
a major somatoform disorder that involves an actual physical disturbance such as the inability to use a sensory organ or the complete or partial inability to move an arm or leg.
patient says anything aloud that comes to mind therapists attempts to connect this to patients unconscious
the transfer of feelings to a psychoanalyst of love or anger that had been originally directed to a patients parents or other authority figure
ex. feelings of anger towards mb jim
what is the goal of client centered therapy?
help client solve his or her own problems by creating a warm, calm environment, granting autonomy.
4 techniques of client centered thereapy
relfection-thru same things diffrent words
body language--eye contact/lean forward
unconditioned positive regard-always on client side
desired outcome when therapists uses exposure and ritual prevention techniques
patient faces and extinguished fear
3 parts of systematic desensitization
pair relaxation with anxious stimuli
-giving into percieved group pressure
-acting in a certain way because of others
-acting differently then if you were alone
ex. drinking on the weekends
method: confederates picked wrong answers
results: 99% accurate solo
76% conformed at least once in group
37% conformed responses
factors that lead to group conformity
group unaimity- group agreement
group cohesion- type of bond
group/individual stauts- lower status conforms to higher status
prior commitment-already agreed harder to back down
private vs public- more likely to conform in public forum
method: tell people to electroschock other people on authority
results: 65% went all the way to 450 volts even though they didnt approve
factors that increase destructive behavior
-emotional distance from victim
-real distance from authority figure
-transfer of responsibility to authority figure
-legitimacy of authority figure/ institution
-pace of commands-> faster= more obediance
strenghtening of dominant response in presence of others
task simple-> others improve performance
task hard-> other hurt performance
diminished self awareness
happens because of:
size of group
pro social behavior
behavior with goal benefiting another person
egotisitic ex. help to help yourself
altruism ex. help for pure desire to help another
innopropriate laughter, silliness, incoherent speech, infantile behavior, strange/obscene behavior
variable mizture of major symptoms of schizo;classifaction used for patients who cannot be typed into any of the more specific categories
axis 3: general medical conditions
physical disorders that may be related to psychological disorders
axis 4: PSYCHOSOCIAL and enviornmental problems
probelems in a persons life such as stresors or life events that may effect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of psychological disorders