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A motor movement or vocalization that is non-rhythmic, rapid, repeated, stereotyped, and sudden is known as a

tic

what is true about major depression?

1. It affects people of all ages, income, races, and cultures.
2. It is a disturbance of mood and can last for weeks, months, or even years at a time.
3. It can include changes in sleep, eating and weight, motor activity, concentration, and interests.

Marla hears voices inside of her head that tell her do certain things (like burn down her house or drive her car into oncoming traffic). These voices are an example of

hallucinations

In the animation, Valerie was diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia. As part of that disorder, she believed that people were plotting to hurt her and her family. Which of the following types of delusions does that represent?

delusions of persecution

Antianxiety drugs reduce the level of anxiety a person experiences and increase feelings of:

wellbeing

Drug therapies for psychological disorders have their effect primarily by

altering the operation of neurotransmitters and neurons.

Antipsychotic drugs used to treat psychological disorders do their work by

regulating the activity in neural circuits related to dopamine.

Which of the following statements regarding antidepressant drugs is TRUE?

SSRIs may increase the risk of suicide among children and adolescents.

The drug Fluoxetine is perhaps better known as

prozac

One of the more effective somatic treatments for bipolar disorder is

lithium

Michael has had several episodes of manic behavior in his life. He is now taking a drug that he must continue for the rest of his life to prevent future episodes of mania. Most likely, Michael is taking

Depakote.

Recently a student was assaulted. Since then, she is nervous, overreacts to ordinary stimuli, and has trouble getting to sleep. Her psychiatrist prescribes a medication for her, which most likely is in which category?

antianxiety

Carlos is very depressed, and the danger of suicide is imminent. He is not responding to the drugs normally used to treat depression. Which of the following treatments is most likely to prove helpful in reducing Carlos' depression and suicidal behavior?

electroconvulsive therapy

_____ has nearly made psychosurgery obsolete.

drug therapy

What percentage of Americans think that we are ruder now than we were 20-30 years ago?

about 70%

How did most people react when confronted with rudeness?

they walked away

What is Americans' number one complaint about rude behavior?

talking loudly on a cell phone

Social psychologists have found that performance in any given situation may be influenced by

reacting to self fullfilling prophecies

Social psychologists fear that awareness of a negative stereotype may cause someone's performance

decline, proving the stereotype true.

DSM

a system used by most professionals to diagnose and classify abnormal behavior. Include 5 axes.

Axis 1: Clinical Disorders

disorders that produce stress and impair functioning.
syndromes:
mood disorders
anxiety disorders
psych disorders
dissociative disorders
eating disorders
(COME AND GO)

Axis 2:personality disorders/mental retardation

enduring rigid behavior patterns
pervasive-with you for life
ex. autism

depression-major

must have many symptoms for at least 2 weeks
must affect your ability to deal with every day tasks

women are how many times more likely to attempt suicide?How many more times are many successful?

3x,2x

dysthymia

mild form of depression lasting at least 2 years
able to conduct normal life activities

Seasonal Affective Disorder(SAD)

experience depression only during decreased light
prevalent in alaska
treatment: sit in UV lights for several days, melatonin for sleep.

Bipolar disorder

combines depressive and manic episodes,
ex. highs and lows of depression and elation.

manic episode

hyperactive, racing thoughts, happiness, energy,nothing can stop you, can be very creative, high output and poor quality

causes of mood disorders

biological and enviornmental
-brain and genetics- lack of serotonin-treated with ssri-zoloft.
-more likely if it is within your family.
-stress, loss of loved one, failure.

medication for bipoloar

lithium
depacote
neurotonin

symptoms of anxiety

persistent,severe, and uses of maladaptive behaviors to reduce anxiety.

specific phobias

can come from a past event or have no cause at all
ex. being afraid of a cat because it scratched you when you were 5.
being afraid of clowns for no reason.

social phobia

fear of humiliation or embarrassment in front of others

agoraphobia

fear of being in situations you cant escape
cause people to not leave home.

panic disorder

extreme anxiety attacks that come from out of the blue
ex ARRON WITKUS

anxiety attacks

severe sympathetic nervous system arousal
ex. racing heart, sweaty palms, feels like it could last forever.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

a continual overanxious state-worried and tense, arousal of sympathetic nervous system at lower levels

obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

obsessions: things your mind cycles on- rant control
compulsions:how you deal with obsessions
^repetitive
ex. washing hands until they bleed.

causes of anxiety disorders

psych and bio
frontal loves or active when in anxious state
patients are very responsive to certain drugs.

psychotic disorders(schizophrenia)

where sense of reality is impaired, include delusions, hallucinations, paranoia
ex schizophrenia, early signs in kids doesnt completely manifest til college aged(25)
symptoms include-though disturbance, withdrawal from others

catatonic schizophrenia

patients have blank expression and scan stay in same position without moving for hours, extreme withdrawal

paranoid schizophrenia

many hallucinations, visual less common and auditory more common.

causes of schizophrenia

1. gentics-family history
no family history-1/100
parent/sibling-1/10
identical twin- 1/2
2.dopamine-schizos have high levels of dopamine
3. brain abmnormalities-low frontal activity and high thalamus activity
4.viral infection in prenatal development
5. enviornmental factors

dissociative disorders

disorders involving disruptions in a persons; memory, consciousness, or identity.
2 main types dissociative fugue(amnesia/new identity) and dissociative identity(multiple personality disorder)

anorexia nervosa

85% less expected body weight
refusal to eat or gain weight
90% girls in high socioeconomic groups
amenorhea-3 months no period

medical complications of anorexia/bulimia

anorexia-osteoporosis,kidney failure,lunugo-fuzzy hair all over body,heart attack, death
bulimia-tooth decay, vomit blood, bowel problems, asophigal tears

somatoform disorders

psychological difficulties that take on a physical (somatic) form but which there is no medical cause

hypochrondasis

a disorder in which people have constant fear of illness and preoccupation with their health

conversion disorder

a major somatoform disorder that involves an actual physical disturbance such as the inability to use a sensory organ or the complete or partial inability to move an arm or leg.

goal of psychoanalysis

gain understanding of unconsconscious

4 techniques of psychoanalysis

dream analysiss
free association
resistance
insight

free association

patient says anything aloud that comes to mind therapists attempts to connect this to patients unconscious

dream interpretation

examining dreams to find clues of unconsious conflicts/problems

resistance

an unablility or willingness to discuss reveal particular thoughts or emotions

transference

the transfer of feelings to a psychoanalyst of love or anger that had been originally directed to a patients parents or other authority figure
ex. feelings of anger towards mb jim

what is the goal of client centered therapy?

help client solve his or her own problems by creating a warm, calm environment, granting autonomy.

4 techniques of client centered thereapy

relfection-thru same things diffrent words
body language--eye contact/lean forward
unconditioned positive regard-always on client side
empathy

goal of behavioral therapy

change problem behavior

techniques of behavioral therapy

CONDITIONING

desired outcome when therapists uses exposure and ritual prevention techniques

patient faces and extinguished fear

3 parts of systematic desensitization

anxiety heirarchy
teach relaxtion
pair relaxation with anxious stimuli

aversion therapy

poor behavior to negative even to extinguish it

goal of cognitive therapy

to change the way you think

in cognitive therapy you first..

indentify bad thoughts and challenge them

psychodynamic therapy

explores the aspect of self

interpersonal therapy

focuses on context of current social relationships.

systematic therapy

addresses people not at an individual level but as members of a system

cognitive-behavioral focus

eating disorders,ocd, depression

behavioral focus

phobias, anxiety, conduct problems

psychodynamic focus

depression,anxiety, interpersonal difficulties

interpersonal focus

depression, anxiety, addiction, eating

conformity

-giving into percieved group pressure
-acting in a certain way because of others
-acting differently then if you were alone
ex. drinking on the weekends

asch study

method: confederates picked wrong answers
results: 99% accurate solo
76% conformed at least once in group
37% conformed responses

informational influence

OTHER PEOPLE KNOW MORE SO YOU CONFORM

normative social influence

group rules- social norms in groups

factors that lead to group conformity

group unaimity- group agreement
group cohesion- type of bond
group/individual stauts- lower status conforms to higher status
prior commitment-already agreed harder to back down
private vs public- more likely to conform in public forum

obediance

authority rules

milgram study

method: tell people to electroschock other people on authority
results: 65% went all the way to 450 volts even though they didnt approve

factors that increase destructive behavior

-emotional distance from victim
-real distance from authority figure
-transfer of responsibility to authority figure
-legitimacy of authority figure/ institution
-pace of commands-> faster= more obediance

social collective

people in same place and same time
ex. not interacting but influencing eachother

social group

same objective, interdependent

social facilitation

strenghtening of dominant response in presence of others
task simple-> others improve performance
task hard-> other hurt performance

social loafing

tendency to exert less effort when working in a group then when working alone

deindividuation

diminished self awareness
happens because of:
size of group
anomimimity
arousal level

pro social behavior

behavior with goal benefiting another person
egotisitic ex. help to help yourself
altruism ex. help for pure desire to help another

bystander effect

less likely to help if you are in a large group
ex. seizure in large lecture

disorganized schizo

innopropriate laughter, silliness, incoherent speech, infantile behavior, strange/obscene behavior

undifferentiated schizo

variable mizture of major symptoms of schizo;classifaction used for patients who cannot be typed into any of the more specific categories

residual schizo

minor signs of schizo after more serious episode

axis 3: general medical conditions

physical disorders that may be related to psychological disorders

axis 4: PSYCHOSOCIAL and enviornmental problems

probelems in a persons life such as stresors or life events that may effect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of psychological disorders

axis 5: global asssesment of functioning

overall level of mental social occupational and leisure functioining

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