Series of changes in Western nations between 1740 an 20th century; stimulated by rapid population growth, increase in agricultural productivity, commercial revolution of 17th century, and development of new means of transportation; in essence involved technological change and application of machines to the process of production
Age of Revolution
Period of politcal upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848
Huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.
Preliminary shift away from agricultural economy in Europe; workers become full or part-time producers of textile and metal products, working at home but in a capitalist system in which materials, work orders, and ultimate sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to Industrial Revolution
Rebellion of English American colonies along Atlantic seaboard between 1775 and 1783; resulted in independence for former British colonies and eventual formation of United States of America
(1754- 1793) Bourbon monarch of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution
declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Adopted during the liberal phase of the French Revolution (1789). It stated the fundamental equality of all French citizens. It later became a political source for other liberal movements.
Introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror.
Poltical viewpoint with origins in western Europe; often rallied with other "isms"; urged importance of national unity; valured a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin
Rose within the French army during the wars of the French Revolution; eventually became general;led a coup that ended the French Revoltuion; established French Empire under his rule; defeated and deposed in 1815
Congress of Vienna
Meeting in the aftermath of Napoleonic Wars (1815) to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes.
in the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans—mainly wealthy landowners and nobles—who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe.
In the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people
Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
Reform Bill of 1832
Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.
Attempt by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during the 1840s; demands for reform beyond the Reform Act of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed.
French Scientist who discovered the relationship between germs and disease in 19th century; leading to better sanitation
Leading conservative political figure in Britain in the second half of the 19th century; took initiative of granting vote to working-class males in 1867; typical of conservative politician making use of popular politics.
Count Camillo di Cavour
Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmontese king
Otto von Bismarck
Conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of Germanunificationunder Prussian king in 1870; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes
American Civil War
Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the United States and reunification of North and South.
Political system in late 19th century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberrals; parliamentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo
Issues relating to repressed classses in western Europe during the Industial Revolution, particularly workers and women; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870
Political movement with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man.
(1818- 1883) German soicalist who blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatoship
Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions.
Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on the right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960's
Mass Leisure Culture
An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports.
Bioligist who developed theory of evolution of species (1859); argued that all living species evolved into their present form through the abiltiy to adapt in a struggle for survival
Developed mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; after 1900 issued theory of relativity
(1856 -1939) Viennese physician who developed theories of the workings of the human subconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses
Artistic and literary movement of the 19th century in Europe; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I
Alliance among Britain, Russia, and France at the outset of the 20th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I
Movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War I.