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An organ, such as the liver, is composed of _____.
1. organs
2. populations
3. communities
4. tissues

4. tissues

Which of these is an organ system?
stomach
mucosa
dog
digestive
gamete

digestive

What are the two main types of cells?
bacteria and archaea
plant and animal
bacteria and protists
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
bacteria and eukaryotes

prokaryotes and eukaryotes

What is the relationship between Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya?
1. They are unrelated groups of cells that have arisen on the Earth over time.
2. The Bacteria and Archaea are groups of cells that all Eukarya feed on.
3. These groups are descendants of a single common ancestor cell.
4. The Bacteria and Archaea are extinct groups of cells that gave rise to the Eukarya.

3. These groups are descendants of a single common ancestor cell.

Which of the following statements about natural selection is true?
1. Natural selection favors individuals that reproduce more than others.
2. Natural selection is a process whereby genes are selected randomly for preservation in the next generation.
3. Natural selection can be used by farmers to generate organisms with desirable traits.
4. Natural selection occurs in opposition to evolution.

1. Natural selection favors individuals that reproduce more than others.

Which term describes a trait that increases an individual's ability to survive in a particular environment?
1. Evolution
2. Fitness
3. Heritability
4. Adaptation

4. Adaptation

Which term describes the ability of a trait to be passed on to offspring?
1. Fitness
2. Evolution
3. Heritability
4. Adaptation

3. Heritability

Which of the following organisms could be produced by artificial selection?
1. A cow that produces a large quantity of milk.
2. A rabbit that is housebroken.
3. A chimpanzee that communicates through sign language.
4. A dog that serves as the "eyes" for a blind individual.

1. A cow that produces a large quantity of milk.

Which pair of chickens should a farmer breed to produce larger chickens?
1. Small hen, small rooster
2. Small hen, large rooster
3. Large hen, small rooster
4. Large hen, large rooster

4. Large hen, large rooster

A farmer wishes to develop a strain of high-yield corn that is also resistant to drought. He has the following individuals from the current year's crop:

Individual A—Yield: 179 bushels/acre; drought resistance: high
Individual B—Yield: 220 bushels/acre; drought resistance: low
Individual C—Yield: 185 bushels/acre; drought resistance: medium
Individual D—Yield: 140 bushels/acre; drought resistance: high
Individual E—Yield: 200 bushels/acre; drought resistance: medium

Which of the following crosses would produce the highest corn yield with the highest resistance to drought?
1. A and B
2. B and B
3. C and E
4. A and E

4. A and E

In a natural population of a grass species, the average protein content of seeds would increase over time if seeds with higher protein content survive better and grow into individuals that produce many seeds with high protein content when they mature. Which statement best explains why?
1. Seeds with higher protein content become more common in the population because this characteristic is heritable and increases survival.
2. In the lifetime of individual grass plants protein content of seeds would increase because higher protein content increases survival but is not heritable.
3. Seeds with higher protein content become more common in the population because this characteristic is artificially selected.

1. Seeds with higher protein content become more common in the population because this characteristic is heritable and increases survival.

Nodes in phylogenetic trees indicate _____.
1. common ancestors
2. species alive today
3. monophyletic groups
4. extinct species

1. common ancestors

Which of the following statements is not true of scientific experiments?
1. They must be well documented.
2. They must occur under carefully controlled conditions found in a laboratory.
3. They yield useful results regardless of whether the hypothesis is supported or rejected.

2. They must occur under carefully controlled conditions found in a laboratory.

In an experiment, investigators try to control all of the variables except one—the one that tests the hypothesis. Which of the following reasons is the primary rationale for controlling variables in an experiment?
1. To eliminate alternative explanations for the results of an experiment
2. To create a control group
3. To enable investigators to repeat the test

1. To eliminate alternative explanations for the results of an experiment

Which of the following statements could not be supported or rejected by a scientific experiment?
1. College students think football is more fun to watch than baseball.
2. Grass is green because it contains chlorophyll.
3. The first living cell on Earth came from outer space

3. The first living cell on Earth came from outer space

Which of the following statements is true of a hypothesis?
1. A hypothesis can be supported or rejected through experimentation.
2. A hypothesis can be proved.

1. A hypothesis can be supported or rejected through experimentation.

Which of the following variables did Pasteur change in his experiment to test the hypothesis of spontaneous generation?
1, The length of time that the broth was boiled
2. The broth used in each flask
3. The shape of the flask
4. The length of time that the flasks were allowed to sit before being sampled for organisms

3. The shape of the flask

In Pasteur's experiment to test the hypothesis of spontaneous generation, why did he boil the broth in both flasks?
1. To kill any existing organisms in the broth
2. To attract dust particles to each flask
3. To provide nutrients to stimulate the growth of microorganisms
4. To expose the broth to a source of organisms

1. To kill any existing organisms in the broth

What results from the Zonosemata experiment support the sub-hypothesis that wing waving alone reduces predation by jumping spiders?
1. Untreated Zonosemata flies are attacked less frequently.
2. Zonosemata flies with housefly wings are attacked less frequently.
3. Houseflies with Zonosemata wings are attacked less frequently.
4. Zonosemata flies with their own wings cut and reglued are attacked less frequently.

2. Zonosemata flies with housefly wings are attacked less frequently.

Suppose that Zonosemata flies whose own wings had been clipped and reattached were attacked more frequently than untreated Zonosemata flies. How would this result affect the reliability of the other experimental results?
1. The reliability of the experimental results would not change.
2. All results for the experimental groups using Zonosemata flies would be invalid.
3. All results for the experimental groups using houseflies would be invalid.
4. All results for the experimental groups involving wing surgery would be invalid.

4. All results for the experimental groups involving wing surgery would be invalid.

You were asked to analyze the number of each tree species in a hectare of deciduous forest. What is the best way to present the data graphically?
1. Plot the number of trees on the vertical axis versus the tree species on the horizontal axis, and connect the data points.
2. Plot the tree species on the vertical axis, and the number of trees on the horizontal axis, and use a bar for each species.
3. Plot the tree species on the vertical axis, and the number of trees on the horizontal axis, and connect the data points.
4. Plot the number of trees on the vertical axis, the tree species on the horizontal axis, and use a bar for each species.

4. Plot the number of trees on the vertical axis, the tree species on the horizontal axis, and use a bar for each species.

A researcher wished to determine the effect of fertilizer concentration on plant growth. She put bean seedlings into four groups, with 10 plants in each group. One group was not fertilized. She measured each plant's height weekly for three weeks. How should she plot the data to analyze the effect of fertilizer on plant growth?
1. Plot plant height on the y-axis and fertilizer concentration on the x-axis.
2. Plot the plant height on the y-axis and time in weeks on the x-axis. The fertilizer concentration data points should be all connected.
3. Plot time in weeks on the y-axis and plant height on the x-axis.
4. Plot the plant height on the y-axis and time in weeks on the x-axis. Each fertilizer concentration should be plotted on a separate line.

4. Plot the plant height on the y-axis and time in weeks on the x-axis. Each fertilizer concentration should be plotted on a separate line.

If a strand of DNA has the nitrogen base sequence 5'-ATTTGC-3', what will be the sequence of the matching strand?
1. 3'-GCAAAT-5'
2. 3'-ATTTGC-5'
3. 3'-TUUUCG-5'
4. 3'-TAAACG-5'
5. 3'-UAAACG-5'

4. 3'-TAAACG-5'

If a DNA double helix is 100 nucleotide pairs long and contains 25 adenine bases, how many guanine bases does it contain?
1. 200
2. 25
3. 50
4. 150
5. 75

5. 75

The two strands of a DNA double helix are held together by _____ that form between pairs of nitrogenous bases.
1. hydrogen bonds
2. S—S bonds
3. covalent bonds
4. hydrophilic interactions
5. ionic bonds

1. hydrogen bonds

A nucleotide is composed of a(n) _____.
1. glycerol, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar
2. phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar
3. phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a hydrocarbon
4. amino group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar
5. sulfhydryl group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar

2. phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar

Which structure is not a component of a nucleotide?
1. Sulfhydryl Oxygen group
2. Nitrogen-containing base
3. Phosphate group
4. Pentose

1. Sulfhydryl Oxygen group

Which of the following statements about nucleotide structure is false?
1. The nitrogenous base is bonded to the sugar.
2. The phosphate group is bonded to the nitrogenous base.
3. The sugar can be either ribose or deoxyribose.
4. The sugar is bonded to the phosphate group.

2. The phosphate group is bonded to the nitrogenous base.

True or false? Guanine and uracil are examples of nitrogenous bases.
True
False

true

Which linkage forms the backbone of a nucleic acid?
1. A sugar-phosphate linkage
2. A sugar-base-phosphate linkage
3. A sugar-base linkage
4. A base-phosphate linkage

1. A sugar-phosphate linkage

Which of the following statements about DNA structure is true?
1. The nucleic acid strands in a DNA molecule are oriented antiparallel to each other.
2. DNA is always synthesized in the 3' to 5' direction.
3. Phosphodiester bonds form between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the 5' carbon of the adjacent nucleotide.
4. The arrangement of the sugar-phosphate groups determines the genetic code.

1. The nucleic acid strands in a DNA molecule are oriented antiparallel to each other.

What is the complementary DNA sequence to 5' ATGCATGTCA 3'?
1. 5' ATGCATGTCA 3'
2. 5' TACGTACAGT 3'
3. 5' TGACATGCAT 3'
4. 5' ACTGTACGTA 3'

3. 5' TGACATGCAT 3'

In a nucleic acid polymer, the hydrogen bonds that help to hold regions of double-strandedness together occur between what parts of the nucleotide monomers?
1. sugars, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases
2. sugars
3. nitrogenous bases
4. sugars and phosphates

3. nitrogenous bases

The primers used for DNA synthesis are _____.
1. proteins that bind to single-stranded DNA
2. short RNA sequences
3. short amino acid sequences (peptides)
4. short DNA sequences

2. short RNA sequences

___________ are the short sections of DNA that are synthesized on the lagging strand of the replicating DNA

okazaki fragments

The enzyme that can replicate DNA is called:

DNA polymerase

After replication is complete, the new DNAs, called _________, are identical to each other

daughter DNA

The new DNA strand that grows continuously in the 5' to 3' direction is called the

leading strand

During DNA replication, an open section of DNA, in which a DNA polymerase can replicate DNA, is called a

replication fork

What catalyzes DNA synthesis?

DNA polymerase

Which of the following statements about DNA synthesis is true?
1. DNA polymerase adds dNTP monomers in the 3' to 5' direction.
2. Primers are short sequences that allow the initiation of DNA synthesis.
3. Nucleotides are added in a random fashion to single-stranded DNA.
4. As DNA polymerase moves along the template strand, each new nucleotide provides a 5' hydroxyl group for the next reaction to occur.

2. Primers are short sequences that allow the initiation of DNA synthesis.

Which part of a deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) molecule provides the energy for DNA synthesis?

phosphate groups

What enzyme creates a primer for DNA polymerase?

primase

Which of the following statements about Okazaki fragments is true?
1. They are usually 50 to 500 bases long.
2. They are sealed together by the action of helicase.
3. They are synthesized in the 3' to 5' direction.
4. They are formed on the lagging strand of DNA.

4. They are formed on the lagging strand of DNA.

What enzyme is important for relieving the tension in a helix as it unwinds during DNA synthesis?

topoisomerase

True or false? Single-stranded DNA molecules are said to be antiparallel when they are lined up next to each other but oriented in opposite directions.

true

In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand, and a guanine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand.

thymine, cytosine

After DNA replication is completed, _____.
1. each new DNA double helix consists of two new strands
2. each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand
3. each of the four DNA strands consists of some old strand parts and some new strand parts
4. there are four double helices
5. one DNA double helix consists of two old strands and one DNA double helix consists of two new strands

2. each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand

The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____.

helicase

The action of helicase creates _____ and ______

replication forks and replication bubbles

Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3' to 5' strands assembled in short segments?

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction

The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____.

RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand

An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand.

template

What enzyme breaks hydrogen bonds between bases and binds at the replication fork?

helicase

What enzyme binds ahead of the replication fork and breaks covalent bonds in the DNA backbone?

topoisomerase

What protein prevents hydrogen bonds between bases and binds after the replication fork?

single-stranded binding protein

What strand needs only one primer, is made continuously, and the daughter strand elongates toward the replication fork?

leading strand

What strand is made in segments, multiple primers needed, and daughter strand elongates away from the replication fork?

lagging strand

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