Anthropology Final Exam

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They were there because of famine and because of the Somalian Civil War. Their roles was to give food and direct aid for the famine.

What role did Doctors without borders play in Somalia during 1993 (what disaster was the reason they were there?)

Civilians, Refugees, People who were likely to live.

When MSF provides medical assistance in a conflict area who do they focus on treating

A doctor got shot and nobody knew the reason/cause because it was an unpredictable situation and people got scared.

Why did MSF pull out of Baidoa, Somalia?

It was his homeland, he wanted to die & be buried there, he loved his home.

Why did the Somali doctor (Lesto) choose to remain in Somalia?

The owner & director of the orphanage said that about the children he took to his orphanage.

What was the context of "they are seeds waiting to grow, our seeds for tomorrows Somalia, tomorrows Somalia will be better, we want them to care for our country so we must care for them".

He went back to observe

Issues re-genocide memorial and reconciliation (medical students) vs remembering the genocide.

Loss of public support, because of the black cop down, intervention was too costly for Americans.

According to the film, why did the US fail to intervene in the Rwandan genocide?

Saving people that were causing the genocide (provoding help for the perpetrators).

When many Hutu refugees fled from Rwanda into DR Congo at the end of the genocide, who responded to their needs? What issues did the humanitarian response encounter here?

MSF didn't want to support going through the leaders of the refugee camps.

Why did MSF pull workers out of Goma, after the Rwandan genocide?

Feuding

Long-term, retributive violence such as headhunting and the Ilongot people is categorized as what type of social conflict?

Banditry

Reciprocal sheep-stealing on the island of Crete is categorized as what type of social conflict?

Feet dragging, humor, false compliance, desertion

Identify examples of 'weapons of the weak'.

Public fasting, celibacy, non-violence, strikes

What was one method that Gandhi used to achieve non-violent social change?

Waiteri Complex

What is the sociobiological explanation of the high rates of warfare among the Yanomami?

He had killed another man

Traditionally among the Yanomami a man had to 'Unokai' to be considered an adult, this was when he had ______?

Feuding

Revenge killing most directly motivates which form of social violence?

All of the above

The current US war on terror has had what impact on global terrorism?

Africa

The continent with the most internally displaced persons is

Diffusion

Culture change that occurs through the transfer of an idea or practice from one culture to another is referred to as

True

In anthropology, the diachronic study of culture, viewing culture change across time, is replacing the older synchronic approach, or viewing culture as it is at a single point in time. True b. False

Force Change & not sustainable

The Red Guard in China's Cultural Revolution attempted to change culture primarily using ____ was this sustainable?

Used to create electricity, deprive them of fish

Cambodian protein intake is threatened by our consumption of Chinese manufactured goods, what is the intermediary between these? Why do consumers not see this?

Outside forces

Traditional development typically serves whose interests?

Hybrid seeds, 60's failed, farmers only made profit crops and couldn't provide for themselves, corporation failed to control.

The Green Revolution

is looking at the broader connections between economy, society, and the environment in order to build a disciplined approach to understanding how we might affect change systemically, comprehensively and positively.

Definition of sustainability

CEO works for only 3-5 yrs, making money only in that short term, no sustainable

Sustainability and corporate leadership, issues

Sell ideas & change

Social marketing aims to

1. Awareness
2. Interest
3. Evaluation/Trial
4. Adoption

Stages in Rogers' model of change

Ipad, facebook, iphone

Lecture examples of diffusion of technology

Diffusion

Culture change that occurs through the sharing of an idea or practice from one culture to another is referred to as

Traditional development, assumptions of women being household and not entrpeneurs.

Issues with control in development, women in development.

• Collaborative research: local collaborators (growth of anthropology around the globe)
• Community involvement:
- Partcipatory Action Research: The community asks the questions, collaborative research support (investment), collective interpretation of and action on results.
- Empowerment: The process of identifying needs and assigning resources to meet those needs.
• Revitalization: Creative solutions to maintaining and sustaining culture (language, religion, etc)
• Rather than fundamentalism.

Better methods in anthropology

Requires community commitment and is a slow process.

Issues with PAR - participatory action research

Rights of children, rights of indigeneous people,

What were the major events in international human rights law since 1946?

cultural context

What role do anthropologists often play in the discussion of 'universal' human rights.

- Ecological/Epidemiological approach
'''''''Culture and the natural environment interact to cause patterns of health and disease.
- Interpretivist approach
''''''''Cultures vary in the systems of meaning (symbols) used to describe the experience and response to illness.
- Critical medical anthropology
'''''''''Explicit focus on how economic and political power structure shape health status, access to, and sustenance of healing systems.

What are the three theoretical approaches medical anthropologists use to understanding health systems

better ways to survive, high infant rates, no one dies at 15

What historic trends are evidenced on the mortality curves for Swedish females?

Ethnomedicine

Studying the emic concepts of health and healing is ____:

Cause:
-Increased infectious and parasitic diseases with increased human population density.
-Agricultural production ore stationary way-of-life.
-Increased contact infected animals and human waste. (i.e. zoonoses, vectors and vehicles of transmisstion).

- 2nd transition modern times with control of infectious diseases and rise in chronic and degenerative diseases.

Cause:
-Antibiotics and vaccines in last century.
-Diseases of wealth, affluence, and sedentary inactivity in developed nations.

- 3rd transition present globalizing disease ecology leading to the re-emergence of infectious disease

Cause:
-Rapid increases in spread of MDRTB, HIV, SARS, Pandemic Flu, cholera.
-Rapid resistance to treatment (antibiotics).

What is an epidemiological transition and when/why have three occurred?

Health: A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (socially constructed)

Define health as per WHO and lecture

Social medicine excess of doctors, exports MDs (for oil in Venezuela).
Why don't we have more MD's in US?

How does the Cuban model of medicine differ from the US and what implications does this have globally?

Health disparities: population differences in health and suffering that are not explained by standard biological risk factors.

Occur because of differences in the quality of health and healthcare between social groups due to racial, ethnic, gender, poverty & other social causes.

What are health disparities and why do they occur?

Economic and Political Power

CMA focuses on how __and __ shape health, health care and healing ideologies:

Studying the health systems of particular cultures. What beliefs and behaviors are utilized to create and maintain a state of health.

Ethnomedicine is ____:

Western Bio-medical model.

What is the prevailing medical model in the US today?

Humoral models

How is Ayurvedic medicine classified?

Humoral models

The Andean Kallawaya use a medical model that looks for an imbalance in soul or fat, this is classified as _____:

Shamans use divinity to diagnose

How is divination used in medical models such as Kallawaya?

Chakras, (belief of pressure points you cannot see)

In Kundalini tantric yoga psychic centers along the spine are called _____. How does this practice differ from casually dropping into an Ashtanga or Hatha yoga class for exercise?

Healing

The Kung dance to activate the num into kia, what is kia used for?

Almost half of the men are healers, everybody has access to medicine.

How does Kung access to healing practices differ from access to medicine in US culture?

Psychoactive drugs. Symbolic meaning and interpretation.

In the US _____ are often used by young people to attain an altered state of consciousness. What could turn this experience into healing

Ritual healer. Diagnoses & treats.

What is the role of the shaman in ethnomedical models, treating/curing mental illness and in society in general?

Body & Mind

The western medical model valued reductionism and this lead to the separation of ___&___ in western medicine:

Pluralism: Using more than one model.
Medical syncretism: The integrated use of traditional and biomedical practices.

What is the difference between medical pluralism and medical syncretism?

-Anorexia nervosa: US westernized eating disorder.
-Amok: Malay sudden mood change/aggression.
-Dhat syndrome: India premature ejaculation (fear of semen loss).
-Genital retraction system: Retraction into body (Malay Koro, Sudan melting penis/ cell phone phenomenon)
-Latah: (SE Asia women, obey, not responsible for acts)
-Susto (Latin America, fright).

Identify the culture bound syndromes discussed in class.

The study of traditional uses of plants resources for healing (phytotherapy)

What is ethnobotany?

The appropriation, or patent, of indigenous biomedical knowledge by foreign entities without compensatory payment.

What is biopiracy?

Biopiracy -the patenting, for native healers
The patent can be forced and you can say you can't sell them, but use them.
Like trade agreements, u.s tried to stop Indian from selling shampoo. U.s and India made consolation an agreements. U.s provide hiv cost

And how are above related to trade?

Exraction of properties and for diet

What are 2 common uses of ethnobotany in the US?

Human health problems caused by political and economic problems such as war, famine, terrorism, forced migration, and poverty.

Structural violence (structural suffering) results from

Medicalization: Categorizing a social phenomena as medical (biological given) to purposefully or inadvertently ignore its political and economic causes.
If poverty is associated with so many diseases then we should fight poverty and alleviate disease.

What is a problem with medicalization?

Structural & Latent.

Applying CMA to alcoholism entails gaining an understanding of individual as well as ___ and ___ social factors:

Anthropologist who focuses on the application of anthropological methods and approaches to the solution of problems, as distinct from academic anthropology.

Applied Anthropologist

Medical Anthropologist

Anthropologist who focuses of the study of illnesses and health care from the perspective of anthropology.

person who facilitates the border crossing of another person or group of people from one culture to another culture

Cultural broker

yeahhhh

Case studies illustrating the focus of evaluation anthropology?

a measurably greater number of biological diseases than the control group.

Investigations by medical anthropologists of "susto" showed that people with "susto," compared to control groups, had

a folk illness called empacho- a combination of constipation and indigestion.

Greta," the Mexican folk medicine, was used to treat

Lead

Robert Trotter discovered that two different Mexican folk medicine remedies contained harmful amounts of

he did not want to attack the local systems of folk medicine.

Tradition, a common barrier in culture change situations, was circumvented by Robert Trotter because he did not

They thought the state owned and would profit from the tree planting project.

Why did the Haitian peasants not embrace the reforesting effort?

met several potential barriers to the project head on.

The center point of Murray's success in designing the reforestation program in Haiti was that he

close to 20 million trees had been planted.

By the end of the four-year funded reforestation project, how many trees had been planted?

Murray clearly communicated and presented the project in the form of a contract agreement.

How did AOP technicians overcome the perception that the Haitian government owned the planted trees?

observing, recording data, questioning, listening to the families.

Susan Squires and her colleagues used what techniques in their research leading the development of the product Go-Gurt?

between ideal (what people say they do) and actual (what they really do) behaviors.

Design anthropologists are expert at using ethnographic methods to distinguish

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