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KC and Assignment questions from the second half of the semester for HN 2210

Drying of the cornea due to vitamin A deficiency is called

xerophthalmia

which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?

Caratenoids

Niacin is necessary to prevent the disease

pellegra

What vitamin plays an essential role in amino acid metabolism?

pyridoxine

Vitamin B12 is supplied almost entirely by

animal products

This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida

folate/folic acid

Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of

vitamin C

The childhood disease rickets is due to a _____________ deficiency.

vitamin D

Vitamin E functions as a(n)

antioxidant

The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is vitamin

K.

Water constitutes ____% of body weight.

50-70

The amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by

ion concentration.

The body's need for water is approximately _____ milliliter(s) per kcalorie.

1

Oxalic acid can inhibit the absorption of

calcium.

The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by

absorption in the small intestine.

A reduced sense of taste is associated with a deficiency of

zinc.

A mineral that has antioxidant functions and has been suggested to reduce cancer risk is

selenium

A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of

iodine.

This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities.

Fluoride

Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above _____ mm Hg.

140/90

Another name for alcohol is

ethanol

How much energy does alcohol contain?

7 kilocalories per gram

What organ is the first to be exposed to alcohol after absorption?

liver

Where is the chief site of alcohol metabolism?

liver

Alcohol metabolism depends on the enzyme

alcohol dehydrogenase

If alcohol is consumed, it should be in moderation with meals. Women are advised to drink no more than ____ drink(s) per day.

1

Men are advised to limit alcohol intake to _____ drink(s) per day.

2

Of all alcohol sources, _____________ often is singled out as the best choice because of the added bonus of the many phytochemicals present.

Red wine

What is the name for the chronic and progressive disease characterized by fatty infiltration of the liver and eventual replacement with scar tissue?

Cirrhosis

What disease may occur in select individuals from a high intake of sodium?

hypertension

Which of the following is true about basal metabolism?

It represents about 60 percent to 70 percent of total kcalories used by a sedentary person during a day.

Which of the following is associated with a decrease in basal metabolism?

A low kcalorie intake

The thermic effect of food

represents the Kcalories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food.

The method for determining energy expenditure that involves the measurement of heat given off by the body during a select period of time in an insulated chamber is

direct calorimetry.

What would be the approximate weight gain, in pounds, of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month (for ease of calculation, assume 28 days in the month)?

4

A weight loss program should have a weight loss of __ to __ pounds per week.

1/2 to 1

Which of the following is true about fat?

It has a high thermic effect.

It is less kcalorie-dense than carbohydrates or proteins.

It is a concentrated source of kcalories.

It is better to eliminate carbohydrates rather than fat when cutting kcalories.

It is a concentrated source of kcalories.

The body's set point has been suggested to be

a weight to which the body closely regulates.

Android obesity is

upper body obesity

The difference between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis is

The end products of aerobic glycolysis are carbon dioxide and water; the end product of anaerobic glycolysis is lactic acid.

To help maintain adequate glycogen stores, an endurance athlete should eat

Bagels and oranges.

The issue of sports drinks and their use is critical for

Activities lasting 60 to 90 minutes or longer.

The best way to determine how much fluid must be replaced as a result of a workout is to

Weigh before and after the workout.

The protein intake per day for a muscle-building athlete should be

1.5 to 1.8 grams per kilogram body weight.

ATP and phosphocreatine are major energy sources for events lasting how long?

1 minute

For every pound lost during a workout, __________ cup(s) of water should be consumed during or after exercise.

3

If an athlete expends 5000 kcalories per day, how much fluid should s/he consume each day?

5 liters

The conversion of glucose to lactic acid is called

Anaerobic glycolysis

During the first two or three days of lactation, breast milk contains colostrum. Why is colostrum important to the health and well being of a newborn?

It contains antibodies and white blood cells from the mother, so it protects the newborn from infections by way of the mothers existing immunity.

The current weight gain recommendations for pregnancy are:

based on the mother's preconception BMI

The organ that nourishes the fetus in the mother's womb is called the:

placenta

Which trimester is an especially critical period when poor nutrition or drug use can result in birth defects?

first

Weight gain during the second through about the eighth year of life is about __________ pounds per year.

5

Absence of breakfast for children is associated with

Decreased performance in sports and decreased attention span.

Human milk and formula provide __________% of kcalories from fat.

50

Deficiency: pellegra

niacin

Deficiency: scurvy

vitamin C

Deficiency: rickets in children

vitamin D

Deficiency: osteomalacia in adults

vitamin D

Deficiency: megaloblast anemia, poor growth

folic acid

Deficiency: anemia characterized by small, pale red blood cells

Iron

Function: provides bone and tooth strength

calcium

Function: facilitates absorption of calcium and phosphate

vitamin D

Function: required for normal blood clotting made by bacteria in the colon

vitamin K

Function: aids in the formation of the thyroid hormone

Iodine

Function: required for synthesis of DNA

folic acid

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