Drying of the cornea due to vitamin A deficiency is called
which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?
Niacin is necessary to prevent the disease
What vitamin plays an essential role in amino acid metabolism?
Vitamin B12 is supplied almost entirely by
This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida
Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of
The childhood disease rickets is due to a _____________ deficiency.
Vitamin E functions as a(n)
The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is vitamin
Water constitutes ____% of body weight.
The amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by
The body's need for water is approximately _____ milliliter(s) per kcalorie.
Oxalic acid can inhibit the absorption of
The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by
absorption in the small intestine.
A reduced sense of taste is associated with a deficiency of
A mineral that has antioxidant functions and has been suggested to reduce cancer risk is
A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of
This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities.
Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above _____ mm Hg.
Another name for alcohol is
How much energy does alcohol contain?
7 kilocalories per gram
What organ is the first to be exposed to alcohol after absorption?
Where is the chief site of alcohol metabolism?
Alcohol metabolism depends on the enzyme
If alcohol is consumed, it should be in moderation with meals. Women are advised to drink no more than ____ drink(s) per day.
Men are advised to limit alcohol intake to _____ drink(s) per day.
Of all alcohol sources, _____________ often is singled out as the best choice because of the added bonus of the many phytochemicals present.
What is the name for the chronic and progressive disease characterized by fatty infiltration of the liver and eventual replacement with scar tissue?
What disease may occur in select individuals from a high intake of sodium?
Which of the following is true about basal metabolism?
It represents about 60 percent to 70 percent of total kcalories used by a sedentary person during a day.
Which of the following is associated with a decrease in basal metabolism?
A low kcalorie intake
The thermic effect of food
represents the Kcalories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food.
The method for determining energy expenditure that involves the measurement of heat given off by the body during a select period of time in an insulated chamber is
What would be the approximate weight gain, in pounds, of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month (for ease of calculation, assume 28 days in the month)?
A weight loss program should have a weight loss of __ to __ pounds per week.
1/2 to 1
Which of the following is true about fat?
It has a high thermic effect.
It is less kcalorie-dense than carbohydrates or proteins.
It is a concentrated source of kcalories.
It is better to eliminate carbohydrates rather than fat when cutting kcalories.
It is a concentrated source of kcalories.
The body's set point has been suggested to be
a weight to which the body closely regulates.
Android obesity is
upper body obesity
The difference between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis is
The end products of aerobic glycolysis are carbon dioxide and water; the end product of anaerobic glycolysis is lactic acid.
To help maintain adequate glycogen stores, an endurance athlete should eat
Bagels and oranges.
The issue of sports drinks and their use is critical for
Activities lasting 60 to 90 minutes or longer.
The best way to determine how much fluid must be replaced as a result of a workout is to
Weigh before and after the workout.
The protein intake per day for a muscle-building athlete should be
1.5 to 1.8 grams per kilogram body weight.
ATP and phosphocreatine are major energy sources for events lasting how long?
For every pound lost during a workout, __________ cup(s) of water should be consumed during or after exercise.
If an athlete expends 5000 kcalories per day, how much fluid should s/he consume each day?
The conversion of glucose to lactic acid is called
During the first two or three days of lactation, breast milk contains colostrum. Why is colostrum important to the health and well being of a newborn?
It contains antibodies and white blood cells from the mother, so it protects the newborn from infections by way of the mothers existing immunity.
The current weight gain recommendations for pregnancy are:
based on the mother's preconception BMI
The organ that nourishes the fetus in the mother's womb is called the:
Which trimester is an especially critical period when poor nutrition or drug use can result in birth defects?
Weight gain during the second through about the eighth year of life is about __________ pounds per year.
Absence of breakfast for children is associated with
Decreased performance in sports and decreased attention span.
Human milk and formula provide __________% of kcalories from fat.
Deficiency: rickets in children
Deficiency: osteomalacia in adults
Deficiency: megaloblast anemia, poor growth
Deficiency: anemia characterized by small, pale red blood cells
Function: provides bone and tooth strength
Function: facilitates absorption of calcium and phosphate
Function: required for normal blood clotting made by bacteria in the colon
Function: aids in the formation of the thyroid hormone
Function: required for synthesis of DNA