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The genetic material of HIV consists of

single stranded RNA

_________on the viral envelope recognize and bind to receptors on the host cell

glycoproteins

What is the function of reverse transcriptase?

catalyzing the formation of DNA from a RNA template

What is the source of a viral envelope?

host cell membrane

HIV is a _________ virus

RNA

Double-stranded viral DNA is incorporated into a host cell as a _____.

provirus

Approximately how many people worldwide are infected with AIDS?

60 million

You are an epidemiologist studying a new disease very similar to AIDS. Most likely, this new disease is caused by what?

retrovirus

Which of the following is true?
1. Kaposi's sarcoma causes AIDS.
2. Kaposi's sarcoma is a symptom of AIDS.
3. Kaposi's sarcoma is only seen in AIDS patients.
4. Kaposi's sarcoma is a drug to treat AIDS.

2. Kaposi's sarcoma is a symptom of AIDS.

AIDS can be contracted by contact with

blood or semen

How long must AIDS patients take their medication?

their whole life

Which group was not described in Woese's tree of life analysis?

prokarya

What characteristics were used to classify organisms before Woese's tree of life analysis?

Presence of a membrane-bound nucleus

True or false? Data showing that the Bacteria were the first lineage to diverge from the common ancestor of all living organisms suggest that the Archaea and Eukarya are more closely related to each other than they are to the Bacteria.

true

Which of the following statements about phylogenetic trees is true?
1. A paraphyletic group has not experienced lateral gene transfer.
2. A paraphyletic group consists of an ancestral population and all of its descendants.
3. A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.

3. A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.

Which molecule did Carl Woese study to produce his tree of life?

ribosomal RNA

What is lateral gene transfer?

Physical transfer of a gene from a species in one lineage to a species in another lineage.

Which evidence supports the endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of the mitochondrion?

Mitochondria have their own ribosomes and manufacture their own proteins.

Why is it more difficult to treat fungal infections than bacterial infections in humans?

Fungal and animal cells and proteins are similar. Thus, drugs that disrupt fungal cell or protein function may also disrupt human cell or protein function.

Which of the following species would you not classify as an animal?
1. sponges
2. choanoflagellates
3. coral
4. jellyfish

2. choanoflagellates

The wing of a bat is homologous to the _____ of a whale.

flipper

Where are the Solomon Islands located?

in the South Pacific

Scientists studying evolution on the Solomon Islands described which animal as the 'poster child' for the biological species concept?

white-eye bird

what can you infer about speciation--the process by which one species splits into two or more species?

Physical separation of populations is often part of the speciation process.

Why did the biologists consider a frog that they found to be a new species?

Its call was unique.

When Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species, he knew very little about the subject of _____, an essential component of evolutionary theory today.

genetics

Which of the following is true?
1. Once it is established in a population, a new mutation will always disappear rapidly.
2. Once it is established in a population, a new mutation will always increase in frequency over time.
3. Once it is established in a population, a new mutation will always decrease in frequency over time.
4. Once it is established in a population, a new mutation may increase or decrease in frequency depending on the environment.

4. Once it is established in a population, a new mutation may increase or decrease in frequency depending on the environment.

You are infected with an antibiotic-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Where did you most likely contract it?

hospital

Which of the following is true?
1. Current research indicates that medians are similar to islands when comparing the diversity of animals, but not of plants.
2. Current research indicates that medians are similar to islands when comparing the diversity of plants, but not of animals.
3. Current research indicates that medians are not similar to islands when comparing the diversity of animals or plants.

3. Current research indicates that medians are not similar to islands when comparing the diversity of animals or plants.

Natural selection ultimately depends on favorable what?

mutations

You discover that a company illegal dumped old vats of PCBs into a nearby river. What do you expect to see?

Fish with deformities.

What does it mean to say that pigweed is resistant to herbicide?

Pigweed plants thrive despite the application of herbicides intended to kill them.

In the past, herbicides were very effective as a pigweed killer, but today _____.

pigweed is taking over fields of cotton and soybeans

The scientists who produced the herbicide warned against overuse, saying that over time, ____.

resistant weeds would increase in number

Why is pigweed so difficult to control?

1. its thick, woody stem
2. the number of seeds it produces
3. the number of inches it grows daily

What effect(s) has the proliferation of herbicide-resistant pigweed had on southern farmers?

1. They may have to pick their crops by hand.
2. They have to hire laborers to cut and remove the weeds by hand.
3. Their large machinery is prone to damage from the pigweed plants.

Darwin's thinking while on the Beagle was greatly influenced by his reading of a book written by _____.

Lyell

Which of these is a consequence of uniformitarianism?

Earth is very old.

The Argentinean pampas are a type of _____.

grassland

At the fossil site at Punta Alta, Darwin found evidence _____.

of extinction

Patagonia is a _____.

desert

His experiences with Fuegians and slavery convinced Darwin that differences among all peoples are primarily _____ differences.

cultural

Species in hot climates tend to _____ compared to species in cold climates.

have larger surface-to-volume ratios

In the Andes, at elevations of 12,000 feet, Darwin collected fossilized marine shells. The existence of marine shells at this altitude provided evidence that _____.

the deposit had been gradually uplifted to its present location

The Galápagos Islands are located _____.

Off the coast of Ecuador

Why were the Galápagos Islands so important to Darwin's formulation of natural selection?

Each island in the Galápagos possessed unique species.

four postulates of natural selection?

1. Variation in population
2. heritable variation
3. selection
4. differential survival or reproduction

combination of postulates 1 and 2 of natural selection?

Heritable variation exists for traits among individuals in a population.

combination of postulates 3 and 4 of natural selection?

Individuals experience differential success in their ability to survive or reproduce.

Does the ability of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell to infect a new host depend on its drug-resistant phenotype?

No, drug-susceptible cells and drug-resistant cells are equally likely to infect a new host.

What describes the evolution by natural selection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in their new environment?

The drug-resistance trait is an adaptation to the environment in which human hosts are medicated with the antibiotic rifampin.

In the United States today, about half of the corn crop is genetically engineered with a protein that is toxic to corn borers, an insect pest of corn. What condition would be necessary for evolution of resistance to the toxic protein to occur in the corn borer?

The corn borer must have or generate (by mutation) heritable variation in resistance to the toxic protein. The resistant corn borers must survive better or reproduce more than nonresistant corn borers.

True or false? It would be difficult to assess whether the drug-susceptible or drug-resistant phenotype in a population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was more fit in an environment without antibiotics.

true

Which is strong evidence that similar traits in different evolutionary lineages are the result of homology and not homoplasy?

The traits are also found in many intervening lineages on the tree of life.

What is the ploidy of organisms that have two sets of chromosomes?

2n

What information can not be obtained from an individual's karyotype?

The sequence of bases of a particular gene

True or false? A haploid organism has one pair of homologous chromosomes.

false

If a cell has 24 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would each of its four daughter cells have after meiosis?

12

Which of the following statements about meiosis and mitosis is true?
1. Each daughter cell produced during meiosis and mitosis is genetically identical to the parent cell.
2. Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that sister chromatids of each chromosome separate.
3. In mitosis and meiosis I, homologous chromosomes move independently of each other.
4. In meiosis II and mitosis, a diploid cell divides.

2. Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that sister chromatids of each chromosome separate.

Which structure is directly correlated with the production of genetic variability in the daughter cells produced during meiosis?

Chiasma

What is the composition of a tetrad at the beginning of prophase I?

One pair of homologous chromosomes

Meiosis I produces _____ cells, each of which is _____.

two, haploid

Meiosis II typically produces _____ cells, each of which is _____.

four, haploid

The events of prophase II are essentially the same as those of mitotic prophase except that prophase II cells are ______

haploid

During ________sister chromatids separate and migrate to opposite poles.

anaphase II

________ are present at the end of telophase II and cytokinesis.

four haploid cells

At the end of telophase I and cytokinesis there are __________.

two haploid cells

At the end of _____ and cytokinesis, haploid cells contain chromosomes that each consist of two sister chromatids.

telophase I

Homologous chromosomes pair during

prophase I

Metaphase II is essentially the same as mitotic metaphase except that the cells are ________

haploid

During _________ tetrads align along the metaphase plate.

metaphase I

Synapsis occurs during _____.

prophase I

Homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles during _____.

anaphase I

During _____ chromosomes align single file along the equator of a haploid cell.

metaphase II

During ________ homologous chromosomes, consisting of sister chromatids, migrate to opposite poles.

anaphase I

At the end of _____ and cytokinesis there are four haploid cells.

telophase II

During _____ a spindle forms in a haploid cell.

prophase II

During __________ the centrosome duplicates and the chromosomes are not condensed.

interphase

Viral DNA incorporated into host DNA is referred to as a ______-

prophage

Integration of viral DNA into host DNA is an early stage of the _________cycle.

lysogenic

In the lysogenic cycle _____.

viral DNA is replicated along with host DNA

Certain viruses are known as retroviruses, based on which of the following characteristics?

The viruses reverse transcribe their genomes from RNA into DNA.

You just discovered a new virus. This virus infects heart muscle, where it causes inflammation. This virus has a very high mutation rate. Which of the following is the best strategy for finding a treatment for this virus?

Identify the receptor this virus uses and develop an enzyme that blocks the receptor.

Will treating a viral infection with antibiotics affect the course of the infection?

No; antibiotics do not kill viruses because viruses use host proteins to replicate and antibiotics affect bacterial proteins.

The first class of drugs developed to treat AIDS-such as AZT-were known as reverse transcriptase inhibitors. What was the mechanism by which they worked to treat HIV infections?

They bonded to the viral reverse transcriptase enzyme, thus preventing the virus from making a DNA copy of its RNA genome.

Which of the following groups of organisms would you expect to be most abundant on Earth?

bacteria

Which of the following would NOT be considered an extremophile?
1. cells that grow in high salt
2. cells that grow very rapidly
3. None of the listed responses is correct, as they are all extremophiles.
4. cells that grow in very hot environments

2. cells that grow very rapidly

The oxygen revolution, which resulted in the accumulation of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, was the direct result of which process?

oxygenic photosynthesis

You have found a new prokaryote. What line of evidence would support your hypothesis that the organism is a cyanobacterium?

It is able to form colonies and produce oxygen.

Which feature did the first eukaryotes probably lack?

cell wall

What advantage do organisms that reproduce sexually have over organisms that reproduce asexually?

Their offspring may be more adaptable to changes in the environment.

Which term describes the fusion of two gametes to form a diploid zygote?

Syngamy

Which term describes the multicellular haploid form of a protist that shows alternation of generations?

Gametophyte

Which structure mediates the attachment of spores to a surface on which to grow?

Holdfast

Which of the following statements about Ulva's haploid stage is true?
1. The haploid Ulva cells are genetically identical to their diploid parents.
2. Haploid cells produce gametes by meiosis.
3. Haploid cells are produced by meiosis of diploid cells.
4. Gametes of the same mating type fuse to produce a diploid zygote.

3. Haploid cells are produced by meiosis of diploid cells.

How does the haploid form of Ulva "switch" to its diploid form?

Gametophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.

True or false? Organisms that exhibit alternation of generations reproduce sexually in the diploid stage.

false

How many membranes does a mitochondria have?

two

A gametophyte is formed from a _____.

spore

Hyphae are _____.

thin filaments

Mushrooms and puffballs are examples of structures used for _____.

reproduction

Molecular phylogenies show all land plants are a monophyletic group. This suggests that _____.

there was a single transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats

In a triploblastic bilateral organism, the inside "tube" is derived from _____.

endoderm

What is a feature of the tube-within-a-tube body plan in most animals?

The mouth and anus form the ends of the inner tube.

Why do related species share homologous traits?

Related species have inherited homologous traits from a common ancestor

How is biological fitness measured?

Biological fitness measures the relative reproductive success of an individual relative to others in the population.

Your text discusses the evolution of antibiotic-resistant M. tuberculosis bacteria in a patient. Researchers discovered that the strain of M. tuberculosis taken from the dead patient has a point mutation in the rpoB gene that codes for part of the RNA polymerase enzyme. This mutant form of RNA polymerase does not normally function as well as the more common form, but a commonly used antibiotic called rifampin does not affect the mutant rpoB. A researcher places M. tuberculosis isolated from the patient a year before death (no rpoB mutation) in cell cultures with M. tuberculosis isolated from the dead patient (with rpoB mutation). Half the cell cultures contain just standard nutrients, and the other cell cultures contain rifampin in addition to the standard nutrients. After many cell generations, the researcher finds that _____.

very few M. tuberculosis in the standard nutrient cell cultures carry the rpoB gene mutation, but almost all of the M. tuberculosis in the cell cultures with rifampin carry the rpoB mutation

Do individuals change when natural selection occurs? Why or why not?

No. Individuals do not change but the population does.

T/F? An individual with a novel adaptation has evolved that adaptation.

false

Which statement is correct?
1. Synapomorphies are examples of homoplasy.
2. Synapomorphies identify monophyletic groups.
3. A synapomorphy may arise due to covergent evolution.
4. A synapomorphy is an ancestral trait.

2. Synapomorphies identify monophyletic groups.

Your professor wants you to construct a phylogenetic tree of orchids. She gives you tissue from seven orchid species and one lily. What is the most likely reason she gave you the lily?

to serve as an outgroup

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