Muscular System

23 terms by eam722

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properties

contraction
extendability
elasticity
exicitability

excitability

responding to stimuli by nerves through neurotransmitters

structure

bone
tendon
fascia
muscle
fascicle
fibers
myofibrils

fast-twitch muscle

shorter endurance (white meat)
more capillaries per mass of fibers (more myoglobin)

slow-twitch muscle

longer endurance (dark meat)
less capillaries per mass of fibers

actin

thin protein that contains tropomyosin and troponin

myosin

thick protein: many fibers with heads

myosin heads contain...

ATP that break down ADP+P

cross-bridges are formed when...

myosin heads attach to the actin

each muscle is served by

1 nerve
1 artery
1 or more veins

muscle contraction

1) brain signals motorneuron
2) neuron and muscle meet
3) neurotransmitters are released
4) calcium ions diffuse into cytoplasm
5) calcium bonds to troponin (changes shape)
6) myosin attaches to actin and bends
7) more ATP comes in and releases

in step 3, what is the chemical that is released?

Acetylcholine (ACH)

in step 6, what is the process of bending?

-ADP+P are attached to the heads
-ADP+P are released when it moves and then it bends

muscular diseases

botulism (botox)
poliomyelitis
tetanus
ALS

rigor mortis

-no oxygen>no ATP>no immediate contraction
-sets in 2 or so hours after death (can last 72)
-membrane permeability increases and causes calcium ions to flood in, and cross bridge attachment occurs

types of muscle contractions

isometric & isotonic

isometric muscle contraction

length does not change, but the amount of tension is increased

isotonic muscle contraction

length changes and tension is constant (concentric vs. eccentric)

concentric

shorten

eccentric

lengthen

muscle tone

continuous state of partial contraction

muscle relaxation

an enzyme decomposes any acetylcholine
-ATP sends Ca ions back into sarcoplasmic reticulum; ATP breaks the fiber link

glycogen

made in the liver, a carb, reservoir for glucose

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