Geography Final Study Questions

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Immigrants in the U.S. today are more likely to be from Latin America or Asia than Europe

True

race and ethnicity are synonyms

false

Race is solely a biological construct

false

Which statement best summarizes the approach of the U.S. Census Bureau to self-definitions of race?
a. Each person recorded by the Census must choose one race with which to identify.
b. The Census Bureau eliminated "Race" as a category in the 2010 Census.
c. The Census Bureau considers "race" and "ethnicity" as equivalent.
d. Individuals may choose to identify themselves with more than one racial group.

d

People who share a common ancestry and cultural tradition compose a(n):
a. race
b. tribunal
c. ethnic group
d. ethnoburb

c

Membership in an ethnic group is largely voluntary.
a. True
b. False

false

Members of majority groups often become ethnic minorities as a result of:
a. migration
b. intermarriage
c. religion
d. the extinction of their language

a?

A particular ethnic group moves from the Middle East to London, England. They get jobs with English businesses and learn to speak English, but they continue to speak Arabic in the home, choose not to become English citizens, do not vote in English elections, and send their children to Arabic schools. This ethnic group has engaged in:
a. assimilation
b. acculturation
c. cultural synthesis
d. ethnic weakening

b?

The best synonym for the traditional idea of the "melting pot" is:
a. assimilation
b. acculturation
c. cultural synthesis
d. ethnic strengthening

a

Which factor is particularly effective in encouraging assimilation?
a. conversion to a new religion
b. maintenance of folkways
c. geographic isolation away from the host culture
d. intermarriage

d

A resurgence of ethnic identity is a social phenomenon happening since the late 1970s/early 1980s only in Europe.
a. True
b. False

false

Which statement is NOT true of an ethnic homeland?
a. It is home to a sizable population.
b. It tends to cover a large area.
c. Its physical location makes its people more susceptible to assimilation over a relatively short period.
d. Its residents typically enjoy some measure of political autonomy or self-rule.

c

Ethnic islands tend to be smaller than ethnic homelands.
a. True
b. False

true

The Louisiana French homeland now identified with the Cajun people is:
a. Carondelet
b. Pontchartrain
c. Acadiana
d. New Orleans

c

All of the following are characteristics of ethnic neighborhoods EXCEPT:
a. bans against competing houses of worship
b. the presence of stores tailored to the tastes of a particular ethnic group
c. use of a common language
d. an ethnically based division of labor

a

In the mid-nineteen century, which ethnic arrivals to the United States were the most likely to settle in rural areas?
a. Italians and Irish
b. Spanish and French
c. Jews and Poles
d. Scandinavians and Germans

d

The neighborhoods created by ethnic migrants tend to be:
a. permanent
b. transitory
c. racist
d. rural

b

What is the largest national-origin group in Hawaii?
a. Chinese
b. Japanese
c. Indonesian
d. Filipino

b

The U.S. city with the largest concentration of Hispanics is:
a. El Paso, Texas
b. Phoenix, Arizona
c. East Los Angeles, California
d. Gary, Indiana

c

Which part of the United States has the heaviest concentration of Hispanics?
a. the Southwest
b. the Midwest
c. the Middle Atlantic
d. New England

a

Which part of the United States has the heaviest concentration of African-Americans?
a. the South
b. the Midwest
c. the Middle Atlantic
d. New England

a?

Which Canadian city has the highest percentage of foreign-born people?
a. Montreal
b. Toronto
c. Vancouver
d. Banff

b

In its fully developed form, an ethnic homeland does NOT have:
a. attributes of a formal culture region
b. attributes of a functional culture region
c. landscape evidence of its particular ethnic identity
d. a goal of complete cultural assimilation

d

In the process of the urbanization and industrialization of North America, urban ethnic immigrants tended to:
a. cluster together in residential neighborhoods
b. disperse throughout the city to find employment
c. assimilate quickly
d. become criminals

a

The influx of Asians to Vancouver, Canada, in the late 1990s was dominated by which group?
a. Chinese from Taiwan
b. Punjabis from India
c. Chinese from Hong Kong
d. Polynesians from New Zealand

c

Neighborhoods created by urban immigrants, regardless of their native origin, tend to:
a. remain unchanged
b. disappear as inhabitants disappear into the host culture
c. remain in place although the ethnic background of the inhabitants may change
d. be identical to communities in the home country

c?

Acadiana and Deseret are examples of ethnic islands.
a. True
b. False

false

Ethnic islands persist in rural areas of the United States for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
a. members of the ethnic group try to live in close proximity to one another
b. much of the land is inherited and passed down through the generations
c. a stigma may be attached to those who lease or sell land to outsiders
d. immigration laws require newer immigrants to settle in areas with people of the same ethnicity

d

An ethnic neighborhood is a voluntary community.
a. True
b. False

true

What type of migration occurs when innovators make the decision to emigrate to another country, and then others follow in succeeding migration waves?
a. stimulus migration
b. involuntary migration
c. chain migration
d. return migration

c

Ethnic cleansing often leads to:
a. involuntary migration
b. return migration
c. economic development
d. channelization

a

Which of the following regions has NOT seen an attempt at ethnic cleansing in the last thirty years?
a. Croatia
b. Darfur
c. Kosovo
d. Mongolia

not a. It's not in the book.

After twenty years of living in the Philippines, a group of Han Chinese relocate back to China. This is an example of:
a. ethnic cleansing
b. involuntary migration
c. return migration
d. racism

c

When groups migrate to a new land they do NOT:
a. introduce a simplified version of their culture
b. borrow alien ways from other groups as well as the host culture
c. invent new techniques better suited to the new land
d. translate every aspect of their home culture to the new land

d

In the chain migration process, the decision to migrate spreads by contagious and hierarchical diffusion.
a. True
b. False

true

Which natural feature has allowed the Gullah of Georgia and Florida to preserve many of their African cultural roots?
a. mountains
b. plains
c. islands
d. taiga

c

Which group of people is most likely to live in an old building contaminated with lead or asbestos?
a. the middle class
b. the wealthy
c. the working class
d. the poor

d

Which is an example of environmental racism on a global scale?
a. Recent Hispanic immigrants live in old tenement buildings in a city
b. France sends its nuclear waste to Russia
c. Asian immigrants cluster in Californian cities
d. Italian immigrants find work in construction and masonry

b?

Russian-Germans from the steppe grasslands of southern Russia established thriving wheat farms on the Great Plains of the United States and Canada. This is an example of:
a. cultural simplification
b. an ethnic substrate
c. environmental perception
d. cultural preadaptation

d

Immigrant ethnic groups often make a concerted effort not to relocate to environments similar to those they left behind.
a. True
b. False

false

In what U.S. state is Italian food the dominant ethnic restaurant cuisine?
a. Pennsylvania
b. Minnesota
c. Texas
d. Illinois

a

In what U.S. state is Chinese food the dominant ethnic restaurant cuisine?
a. Pennsylvania
b. Minnesota
c. Texas
d. Florida

b

Which color is venerated by the Chinese?
a. red
b. white
c. green
d. yellow

a

Which ethnic group became the dominant ethnic group in Miami, Florida in the 1960s?
a. Jews
b. Cubans
c. Puerto Ricans
d. Dominicans

b

Ethnic cultural landscapes are found only in cities.
a. True
b. False

false?

Which country comes closest to the "ideal" hexagonal configuration of a national territory?
a. Indonesia
b. Brazil
c. Uruguay
d. the United States

b

Prior to independence, Bangladesh was an exclave of:
a. Senegal
b. India
c. Pakistan
d. Thailand

c

Nationalism has historically always been a force for good.
a. True
b. False

false

National languages, national museums, and national monuments are all:
a. centripetal forces
b. centrifugal forces
c. push factors
d. politically controversial

a

Which statement is NOT an accurate assessment of electoral politics in the United States?
a. States overall may be "red" or "blue," but there is often a great deal of county-by-county variation within states.
b. Maps showing a breakdown of "red" vs. "blue" states may be misleading because states that have large areas may have significantly fewer electoral votes than states with much smaller areas.
c. Most maps showing "red" and "blue" states provide an accurate picture of electoral geography in the United States.
d. The concept of "purple America" helps make up for some of the limitations of the "red state vs. blue state" idea.

c

The least desirable shape for national cohesiveness is:
a. circular
b. hexagonal
c. compact
d. elongated

d

In the case of East Pakistan and West Pakistan, the exclaves were an undesirable political geography condition for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
a. West Pakistan hoarded the country's wealth
b. they were ethnically different, a source of conflict between the two parts of Pakistan
c. a hostile power, India, controlled the intervening territory
d. the people of East Pakistan had much more political power than the people of West Pakistan

d

In Canada, the people of Quebec have a sense of unity based on their common French heritage and unique cultural development and many Francophones desire separation from Canada. What kind of undermining condition against the integrity of Canada is this?
a. centripetal force
b. centrifugal force
c. guerilla movement
d. insurgency action

b

When countries voluntarily give up some portion of their independence to gain the advantages of a closer economic or political association with their neighbors it is known as:
a. imperialism
b. irredentism
c. supranationalism
d. federalism

c

An example of a supranational organization that took the form of a regional trading bloc is:
a. North Atlantic Treaty
b. NAFTA
c. Doctors Without Borders
d. Greenpeace

b

Which of the following organizations does NOT represent the vestiges of a collapsed empire?
a. The British Commonwealth
b. The French Community
c. The Commonwealth of Independent States
d. The European Union

d

A redistricting practice that produces voting districts with awkward, elongated shapes is known as:
a. balkanization
b. geometrization
c. gerrymandering
d. cleavage

c

In the twentieth century, the number of supranational organizations grew in number coincident with the proliferation of independent states.
a. True
b. False

true

In the twentieth century, the number of supranational organizations grew in number coincident with the proliferation of independent states.
a. True
b. False

false?

The Internet is unlikely to erode political boundaries even though information and ideas can diffuse more rapidly because political barriers to cultural diffusion are unstable.
a. True
b. False

...

The most powerful, ambitious, and successful supranational organization in the world is NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty).
a. True
b. False

...

A country's most important district, housing the capital and the cultural and economic heart of the nation, is known as the:
a. heartland
b. metropolis
c. centrifugal area
d. core area

d

Which statement is not true of both Russia and the United States?
a. They have extensive east-west shapes
b. They believed in manifest destiny
c. They expanded from a core area
d. They both have rich capitalist foundations set up in the twentieth century.

d

The modern territorial state based on the European experience diffused around the globe through Western:
a. supranationalism
b. federalism
c. centripetal forces
d. colonialism

...

Government policies can and do have major effects on land use.
a. True
b. False

true

Which of the following natural features did NOT protect Russia's core area from military invasion?
a. dense forest
b. vast expanses of uninhabited land
c. large marshes
d. the Aral Sea

d?

Mackinder's heartland theory is based on:
a. possibilism
b. environmental determinism
c. humans as modifiers of the environment
d. human perception of the environment

b

Understanding the effect of political and economic forces upon people's relationships to the land is known as:
a. environmental determinism
b. possibilism
c. political ecology
d. economic determinism

c

According to the heartland theory, which part of the Earth was the most likely base from which to launch a successful campaign for world conquest?
a. the British Isles
b. Western Europe
c. the United States
d. the central lands of the Eurasian continent

d

In the United States, the belief that the Pacific Ocean was the logical boundary for national expansion was expressed in:
a. the heartland theory
b. manifest destiny
c. the Spykman doctrine
d. manifest expansion

b

The U.N. Charter incorporates the principle of self-determination for nation-states.
a. True
b. False

...

European colonial powers generally extended the right of self-determination to their overseas colonies.
a. True
b. False

false?

Which is NOT an example of a multiethnic country?
a. Japan
b. Spain
c. South Africa
d. India

a?

In general, secessionist movements tend to be located in:
a. urban centers
b. liberal or progressive strongholds
c. the periphery
d. wealthy districts

...

A country that recently adopted a Swiss-style federal system extending power to its indigenous populations is:
a. United Kingdom
b. China
c. Australia
d. Canada

...

Cumulative voting patterns typically reveal sharp and pronounced regional contrasts and borders that electoral geographers refer to as:
a. balkanized
b. shatter belts
c. gerrymandering
d. cleavages

d

The link between political and cultural patterns, where people of common heritage achieved independence as a separate country, is epitomized by the:
a. homeland
b. heartland
c. nation-state
d. marchland

c

Nation states are typically culturally homogeneous.
a. True
b. False

true

We live in an age of rising ethnic nationalism.
a. True
b. False

...

Hadrian's Wall and the Great Wall of China:
a. have natural boundaries
b. are national barriers
c. are relic boundaries
d. are modern border landscapes

c

Which of the following is NOT true of religion?
a. It requires a belief in one God.
b. It often attempts to accommodate and influence the forces of nature, life, and death.
c. Its set of beliefs and practices are relatively structured.
d. It is spatially demarcated through the designation of sacred spaces.

a

The universalizing religions have no history of colonization and violence.
a. True
b. False

false

Judaism is an example of a(n):
a. polytheistic religion
b. proselytizing religion
c. ethnic religion
d. fundamentalist sect

c

The parent religion of Christianity is:
a. Islam
b. Buddhism
c. animism
d. Judaism

d

Which is NOT true of Islam?
a. It is polytheistic.
b. Its adherents follow the Five Pillars.
c. It is a proselytizing religion.
d. In its desire to universalize, it resembles Christianity

a

Religions that actively seek new members and aim to convert all human kind are:
a. animistic
b. polytheistic
c. universalizing
d. ethnic

c

A religion identified with a particular national or tribal group that does not seek new converts is:
a. orthodox
b. ethnic
c. syncretic
d. fundamentalist

b

The Jews who never left the Middle East and North Africa are known as the:
a. Ashkenazim
b. Mizrachim
c. Sephardim
d. Marardim

b

The religion that sees God as a Trinity composed of three persons is:
a. Hinduism
b. Islam
c. Buddhism
d. Christianity

d

Which city has traditionally been considered the seat of Eastern Christianity?
a. Athens
b. Ankara
c. Istanbul
d. Baghdad

c

Islam and Christianity are growing rapidly in Africa as a result of:
a. return migration
b. theocratic local governments
c. imperialist expansion
d. missionary efforts

...

Islamic law is known as:
a. shiite
b. sunni
c. sharia
d. zakat

c

How many times per day are Muslims expected to pray?
a. one
b. three
c. five
d. seven

c

The supreme god of Hinduism is:
a. Kali
b. Vishnu
c. Brahman
d. Devi

c

The priestly caste in India is the:
a. Brahmins
b. Kshatriyas
c. Vaishyas
d. Shudras

a

Which Hindu belief holds that what an individual experiences in this life is a direct result of his or her actions in a previous life?
a. dharma
b. karma
c. moksha
d. ahimsa

b

Which Hindu concept means the release of the soul from the cycle of death and rebirth?
a. dharma
b. karma
c. moksha
d. ahimsa

c

Jainism and Sikhism have their roots in:
a. Islam
b. Hinduism
c. Taoism
d. Judaism

b

The religion centered in the Punjab state of India is:
a. Sikhism
b. Jainism
c. Taoism
d. Sunni Islam

a

In which religion are many of the adherents vegetarians as a result of the principle of ahimsa?
a. Christianity
b. Islam
c. Hinduism
d. Protestantism

c

Siddharta Gautama was the founder of:
a. Sikhism
b. Jainism
c. Taoism
d. Buddhism

d

At its core, Shinto is an animistic religion.
a. True
b. False

true

Which is NOT true of animism?
a. Adherents believe that spirits live in natural features such as mountains and lakes.
b. It is usually an indigenous religion.
c. It is usually practiced as an ethnic religion.
d. It tends to follow oral (rather than written) traditions.

b

Wicca is a form of:
a. Satanism
b. animism
c. Buddhism
d. Taoism

b

Moses and Abraham are venerated by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
a. True
b. False

false

The state of enlightenment that is a goal of Buddhism is known as:
a. ahimsa
b. moksha
c. nirvana
d. dharma

c

The Jewish holy book is the:
a. Qur'an
b. Vedas
c. Torah
d. Bible

c

Those Jews who lived in Spain and Portugal until 1492 are known as:
a. Ashkenazim
b. Shiites
c. Mizrachim
d. Sephardim

d

Islam was founded by:
a. Abraham
b. Muhammad
c. Gabriel
d. Moses

b

The holy book of Islam is the:
a. Qur'an
b. Vedas
c. Torah
d. Bible

a

In which country is the largest percentage of the population Muslim?
a. Iran
b. Saudi Arabia
c. Pakistan
d. Indonesia

d

Which of the following faiths tends to merge with East Asia's native religions making it very difficult to determine the number of its adherents?
a. Sikhism
b. Jainism
c. Buddhism
d. Umbanda

c

In some parts of the world, especially in much of Europe, religion has declined, giving way to:
a. paganism
b. secularization
c. wicca
d. shamanism

...

The majority of Muslims are Shiites.
a. True
b. False

...

Islam is the world's fastest growing religion.
a. True
b, False

true

Religion is a highly territorial phenomenon.
a. True
b. False

...

The faith that spread from its hearth in the Middle East in a predominantly militaristic manner was:
a. Judaism
b. Christianity
c. Islam
d. Animism

b

The origin of Hinduism likely lies in:
a. Punjab
b. Kolkata
c. Chennai
d. Bangaluru

a

The world's three great monotheistic faiths that share a common culture hearth in southwestern Asia are:
a. Sikhism, Jainism, and Zoroastrianism
b. Baha'i, Kabbalah, and Taoism
c. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
d. Confucianism, Shinto, and Buddhism

c

Religion itself can be a barrier to diffusion.
a. True
b. False

true

Which river is holy to Hindus?
a. Jordan
b. Rhine
c. Ganges
d. Rio Grande

c

In what religion is Mt. Fuji sacred?
a. Buddhism
b. Hinduism
c. Shintoism
d. Christianity

...

The belief that the earth was created for humans, who are the masters of the domain, is called:
a. teleology
b. theology
c. geomancy
d. theosophy

a

The site of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is considered most sacred by:
a. Muslims and Jews
b. Hindus and Muslims
c. Greek Orthodox and Jews
d. Jews and Christians

a?

Studying the role of religion in habitat modification is known as:
a. environmentalism
b. teleology
c. ecotheology
d. ecofeminism

c

Pilgrimage sites fall into all of the following categories EXCEPT:
a. the settings for miracles
b. the place where a religion originated
c. sacred physical features
d. places where early adherents were martyred

d

The fact that there is an absence of swine in North Africa and the Middle East today can be most simply attributed to:
a. a taboo against pork by Muslims and Jews that has conflicting explanations for its existence
b. the existence of deserts and the lack of oases throughout this region
c. the fact that pigs are sedentary and most Muslims are nomads
d. the fact that pigs are subject to disease in these regions

...

Which of the following statements is NOT correct about the interrelationship between religion and alcohol consumption?
a. Muslims are prohibited alcohol.
b. Christian missionaries introduced grapes and winemaking to Europe beyond the Alps.
c. Seventh-Day Adventists and Mormons support the prohibition of alcohol although the Adventists permit beer consumption.
d. Several varieties of German Rhine wines are made by Christian monastic orders.

...

Which of the following religions is more likely to decide in which types of employment people engage and in what neighborhood they reside?
a. Buddhism
b. Hinduism
c. Islam
d. Judaism

b? c?

Which religion's houses of worship are typically large, ornate, and/or visually imposing?
a. Catholicism
b. Methodism
c. Lutheranism
d. Pentecostalism

a?

Most traditional Protestant houses of worship are designed to appear:
a. overwhelming
b. imposing
c. humble
d. grandiose

c?

In what country is Zoroastrianism practiced?
a. India
b. Bangladesh
c. Pakistan
d. Azerbaijan

...

The decorations on the Taj Mahal are:
a. Muslim
b. Buddhist
c. Christian
d. Jewish

b?

In general, people are reluctant to change their practices relating to the dead.
a. True
b. False

...

The placing of a Marae next to a Christian church represents the:
a. pagan gods in New Zealand
b. conversion of Maoris in Australia
c. pagan gods of the Aborigines
d. conversion of Maoris in New Zealand

...

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