# Bio Chapter 1

## 36 terms · Chapter 1 Vocab

### Matter

Has a volume and a mass

### Atom

Smallest unit of an element that can enter into a chemical change

### Atomic Number

# of protons, # of electrons in a neutral atom

### Atomic Mass

# of neutrons in an atom

### Isotope

Same atomic number but a different atomic mass (# of neutrons)

### Cation

ion with more protons then electrons

### Anion

Ion with more electrons then protons = negative charge

### Energy Level

Valences in electrons of atoms

### Octet Rule

For an atom to become stable must have an outer shell of 8

### Covalent

2 atoms sharing a pair of electrons

### Polar

Covalent bond, unequal sharing of electrons

### Non-polar

Covalent bond, equal sharing

### Acid

pH less then 7, more dissolved hydrogen atoms then hydroxide atoms

### Base

A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution

### Neutralization

Acid + Base neutralizes pH of 7

### pH

Calculated by mathematical formula scale from 0 - 14, 7 is neutral

### Logarithm

pH= Log10 [H+] mathematical formula

### Buffer

Solution which reduces pH of a solution

### Matter

Has a volume and a mass

### Atom

Smallest unit of an element that can enter into a chemical change

### Atomic Number

# of protons, # of electrons in a neutral atom

### Atomic Mass

# of neutrons in an atom

### Isotope

Same atomic number but a different atomic mass (# of neutrons)

### Cation

ion with more protons then electrons

### Anion

ion with more electrons then protons = negative charge

### Energy Level

Valences in electrons of atoms

### Octet Rule

For an atom to become stable must have an outer shell of 8

### Covalent

2 atoms sharing a pair of electrons

### Polar

Covalent bond, unequal sharing of electrons

### Non-polar

Covalent bond, equal sharing

### Acid

pH less then 7, more dissolved hydrogen atoms then hydroxide atoms

### Base

pH over 7, increases the concentration of OH- in an aqueous solution

### Neutralization

Acid + Base neutralizes pH of 7

### pH

Calculated by mathematical formula scale from 0 - 14, 7 is neutral

### Logarithm

pH= Log10 [H+] mathematical formula

### Buffer

Solution which reduces pH of a solution