psychology-final review

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difficult

Chester is irritable, loud, and negative most of the time. He doesn't like it when new people pick him up, and he has irregular sleeping, eating, and waking schedules. What temperament does he exhibit?

sensorimotor

At the beginning of the _________ stage, an infant centers more on action rather than thought.

cross-sectional study

Dr. Ahmandi is a development psychologist who studies memory development. In one of her research projects she tested memory in a group of 5 year old children. Then she gave the same test to a group of 9 year olds and compared the results of the groups to see how memory changes over this time span. This is a type of __________.

Moro reflex *

Javier was born 3 days ago. His parents have noticed he has several reflexes which the doctors have been testing. Which of the following is not a reflex exhibited by healthy newborns?

Mary Ainsworth

_____________pioneered the use of a procedure called the strange situation in studying the mother-child interactions in the home during the infant's first year.

assimilation and accommodation

Piaget believed that children learn by using ____________ to adjust their cognitive schemes.

Their tendency to talk aloud to themselves gradually turns into inner thought.

Lev Vygotsky believed that one trend common to all children was __________.

a lack of object permanence

Infants do not recognize the objects, once removed from their view, continue to exist. The information processing approach would say this is due to _________.

intimacy versus isolation

Erikson saw the major challenge of young adulthood as that of ______.

formal operations

In one early research study, kids of different ages were given a task and were given 30 min to complete that task. The research found that older kids were much better at monitoring their time and finishing within 30 mins compared to younger kids. This demonstrates the development of ___________during adolescence.

fluid intelligence

The knowledge that one uses to figure out the buttons and functions of a new microwave oven is called ____.

acceptance

Several weeks of diagnostic tests have revealed that cancer has spread throughout Barry's body. His physician suggested that he take care of important matters. Barry realized his family's home needs repairs, so he arranges to have that done right away. To relieve his family of the agony of planning his funeral, he has made all the arrangements. Barry tells his minister he has had a good life and just wants to make sure he provides for his family after his death. This description fits the stage Kuber-Ross called _____.

identity moratorium

Marlon has a real problem. He is in the middle of his teenage years, and he has started doubting the religious faith in which he was raised. He still goes to church with his parents, but he has been doing some research into the basic rules and beliefs of other religions. He is not sure if he is going to make a change in his religion, but he is seriously considering it. According to James Marcia, which stage of identity development is Marlon currently in?

1. they are directly involved in reproduction

Which of the following statements is not true of the secondary sex characteristics?
1. they are directly involved in reproduction
2. they begin to develop in puberty.
3. they are associated with sexual maturity
4. they include pubic and underarm hair in both sexes.

preconventional, conventional, postconventional

What is the sequence of stages of moral development as identified by Lawrence Kohlberg?

Intensity

_________ refers to focused energy and attention applied in order to reach a goal.

eating when you are not hungry

Which of the following activities is inconsistent with drive-reduction theory?

physiological

Jenna skipped dinner last night to stay up late studying for her final exam. She went to bed at 6 am and had to be at class by 8 am. Her alarm clock did not go off as scheduled and she raced out the door without eating. As a result, she was very distracted by hunger pangs and lack of energy while taking the test. She later learned that she failed her exam. Jenna could have likely performed better on her final if she had met a __________ need before the final.

James-Lange theory of emotion

This theory suggests that different patterns of arousal in the autonomic nervous system produce the different emotions people feel, and that the arousal appears before the emotion is perceived.

amygdala

The brain structure most related to fear is _______

4. sexual love

According to Sternberg, 3 components in combination an alone produce seven kinds of love. Which of the following is not one of these kinds of love?
1. infatuated love
2. consummate love
3. romantic love
4. sexual love

gender stability, gender constancy, gender identity.

According to Kohlberg, what is the correct sequence children go through in acquiring the concept of gender?

androgynous

Same is a father of 2 children and has a career as a professor at an university. He is nurturing and sensitive to his children's needs, able to express emotions outwardly, independent and assertive, and thinks problems through calmly and logically. Sam is a good example of a person who is ____.

Kinsey

What researcher is responsible for the publication of textbooks documenting the sexual behaviors of men and women in 1948 and 1953 respectively?

bisexual

Channel is a 43 year old female who has been in sexual relationships with both men and women. She is thinking of getting married to her partner, a female, despite still admits she finds men and women attractive. Channel is considered ______ in terms of her sexual orientation.

genital warts

_______ is caused by a virus

?????????????

In the US, approximately _______ of those infected with HIV are male.

hassles

In her job as an administrative assistant, Donna must cope with every detail of the vice president's schedule. She deals with the minor demands made upon her employer so that her employer can focus on major, critical issues. Donna is coping with what Lazarus would term _________.

approach-avoidance conflict

Fred is excited about his upcoming vacation to Europe. However, the $12,000 vacation has him worried. This is an example of a __________.

historical racism

Many researchers have suggested that ______ may be the social phenomenon that contributes significantly to the high incidence of high blood pressure among African Americans.

emotion-focused coping

The coping method that involves changing the way you feel or emotionally react to a stressor is known as _____

3. personality disorders

Which of the following is not an Axis 1 disorder?
1. sexual and gender identity disorders
2. factitious disorders
3. personality disorders
4. substance-related disorders

2. some anxiety is realistic when its source is understandable

What is true about anxiety?
1. it is never considered realistic or normal
2. some anxiety is realistic when its source is understandable
3. it always manifests itself as a disorder
4. it is unusual for a mentally healthy person to experience anxiety.

Mania

When a patient arrives in the emergency room, he is restless and irritable with unlimited energy and a rapid rate of speech. The attending psychiatrist believes the patient has taken cocaine or amphetamines and admits him for observation. The next day the symptoms are the same. What condition with symptoms that are similar to those associated with amphetamine use might the psychiatrist now consider as a condition that is relevant to the diagnosis?

white males over the age of 85

Which group has the highest suicide rate?

schizophrenia

A person who is suffering from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations and who is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality is likely suffering from _____.

Betty is likely to have a poorer outcome than Clara.

Betty is a schizophrenic who is socially isolated, unmotivated, and has let her appearance and hygiene decline during that period. Clara is a schizophrenic who is hearing voices and believes she is a reincarnation of Princess Diana. What can we predict about them?

personality disorder

Individuals who exhibit longstanding, inflexible and maladaptive patterns of behavior that interfere with their personal adjustment and cause those around them distress are likely to be diagnosed as having _____.

ADHD

A disorder in which a child slowly shows both significant problems in focusing attention and higher than average levels of physical activity is _____.

Cognitive ????

Dr. Graham listens to Maria's statements and then restates what he feels Maria's message and describes her emotions. What type of therapy is this?

systematic desensitization

In which type of therapy are clients trained in deep muscle relaxation?

activating events

In Ellis's ABC theory, emotions are caused by _____.

psychoanalysis

Dr. Shedrika uses a form of therapy that emphasizes revealing his clients' unconscious conflicts, urges, and desires, which he believes are the cause of his clients' disordered emotions and behavior. This therapist is most likely using _____.

1. specific phobias

Interpersonal therapy is not specifically designed to deal with which of the following problems?
1. specific phobias
2. unusual or severe responses to death of a loved one
3. interpersonal role disputes
4. deficits in interpersonal skills

Gestalt therapy

Peggy is sitting and facing an empty chair. In this chair, she imagines, sits her mother whom she is telling how she feels about her. Later in the therapy, Peggy will switch chairs and imagine that her mother is talking to her. What type of therapy is this?

high blood pressure

Family patterns of high expressed emotion, criticism, or hostility can be a problem when a family member has a medical condition such as _____.

no one psychotherapy worked for every type of problem.

Studies on the effectiveness of psychotherapy have found that ____.

optimist

George has been diagnosed with cancer, but is certain that he will get better. Seligman suggests that this might be true because George is an _______.

anal expulsive

Shara recently moved into her own apartment. Shara's mother is appalled at the sloppy, housekeeping of her daughter, but when she says anything to Shara, she becomes quite hostile. Freud would describe Shara's behavior as _____.

Psychodynamic concepts are difficult to test.

Your teacher organizes a debate on Freudian theory. You are assigned to be on the anti-Freud side and therefore, must point out problems in the theory. What could you say?

self- actualization

Sarah is highly motivated to run the NYC marathon. She has trained very hard for the race and believes that it will be a defining moment in her life. Maslow might call this _______.

psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism

Eysenck's 3 factor PEN model stands for ______.

reciprocal determinism

Bandura's notion that people are affected by their environment but can also influence that environment is known as ______.

high self-efficacy

Amasa who is applying for a National Science Foundation grant b/c she believes her research is worth the investment. This is a good example of someone with ______.

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