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A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
foreign direct investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
gender empowerment measure
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
gender related development index
Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
gross domestic product
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally 1 year).
human development index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
less developed country
Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic developementTh
The percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
more developed country
Also known as a relatively developed county or a developed country, a country that has progressed in relativety far along a continuum of development.
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
relatively developed country
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
structural adjustment program
Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services.
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.