Ch 14 Biology

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31 terms · College Biology 120

Feathers either play a role, or may have played a role, in _____.

All of these.
-extended hops
-gliding
-flight
-courtship

_____ is rapid speciation under conditions in which there is little competition.

Adaptive Radiation

Mass extinctions create conditions that promote _____.

Adaptive Radiation

The appearance of an evolutionary novelty promotes _____.

Adaptive Radiation

The different finch species found on the Galápagos Islands probably arose as a result of _____.

Adaptive Radiation

A biologist spends her summer break collecting frogs from a remote jungle in Peru. She discovers two distinct color forms that could be variants of a single species or two different species. What would be the most direct test of their species status under the biological species concept?

Observe mating in the natural environment of the two groups. If the two forms do not mate with each other, they are different species.

In _____ isolation, it is physically impossible for two species to mate with each other, often because their genitalia do not fit together properly.

Mechanical

Eastern and western spotted skunks breed at different times of the year. Therefore, they are prevented from interbreeding by _____ isolation.

Temporal

The process of speciation starts with a single species. It often involves the following steps: (1) two populations become physically separated from one another by a barrier to dispersal and stop exchanging genes; (2) the populations experience independent evolutionary changes; (3) changes in one or both populations result in development of reproductive isolating mechanisms that prevent interbreeding; further changes in geography may bring the groups back into contact. When do you officially have two separate species?

Step 3

Darwin thought that significant evolution was much too slow to be witnessed in a human lifetime. Recent experiments by biologists have _____.

shown that some populations can evolve quite rapidly, with important changes occurring over several generations in the laboratory

Speciation, or the formation of new species, is...

responsible for the diversity of life.

Which of the following would a biologist describe as microevolution?

a change in the gene pool of a population from one generation to the next

Under the biological species concept, a species is a group of organisms that...

have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring.

The biological species concept is...

sometimes difficult to put into practice even for present sexual organisms, and useless for asexual organisms and fossils.

Which of the following statements regarding the definition of species is false?

The morphological species concept relies upon comparing the DNA sequences of organisms.

Which provides the most general and correct description of the idea of a reproductive barrier?

a biological difference between two species that prevents them from successfully interbreeding

Two populations of organisms belong to the same biological species when they...

encounter each other, mate, and produce viable, fertile offspring under natural conditions.

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of species that could interbreed except that one mates at dusk and the other at dawn?

Temporal Isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of insect species that could interbreed except that one lives on goldenrod plants and the other on autumn daisies in the same general area?

Habitat Isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of moth species that could interbreed except that the females' mating pheromones are not attractive to the males of the other species?

Behavioral Isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates two flowering plant species that could interbreed except that one has a deep flower tube and is pollinated by bumblebees, whereas the other has a short, narrow flower tube and is pollinated by honeybees?

Mechanical Isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates two species of sea cucumbers, whose sperm and eggs often bump into each other but do not cross-fertilize because of incompatible proteins on their surfaces?

Gametic Isolation

Two species that occasionally mate and produce zygotes, but which have incompatible genes that prevent the resulting embryo from developing, are separated by...

reduced hybrid viability.

Two species that sometimes mate and produce vigorous but sterile offspring are separated by...

reduced hybrid fertility.

Two species interbreed occasionally and produce vigorous, fertile hybrids. When the hybrids breed with each other or with either parent species, however, the offspring are feeble or sterile. These species are separated by...

Hybrid Breakdown

Frequently, a group of related species will each have a unique courtship ritual that must be performed correctly for both partners to be willing to mate. Such a ritual constitutes a ________, ________ reproductive barrier.

behavioral . . . prezygotic

The Monterey pine and the Bishop's pine inhabit some of the same areas of central California. The Monterey pine releases pollen in February, while the Bishop's pine does so in April. This is an example of ________ isolation.

Temporal

According to the ______ species concept, a species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring. The seperation between species is maintained by ___________ isolation, which prevents gene flow between species. But in some cases, distinct species can occasionally interbreed producing _______ offspring.

-Biological
-Reproductive
-Hybrid

Alternatively, the __________ species concept identifies species based on physical traitsor body form. This species concept can be applied to _______ species, and it is the way most of the 1.8 million named species have been identified.

-Morphological
-Asexual and Extinct

In the ________ species concept, species are defined by their niche---the role they play in the environment.

Ecological

The _____ species concept defines species as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor and form one branch on the tree of life.

Phylogenetic

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