Sociology exam 1

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Exam 1

C. Genocide

We refer to the deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation- as has occurred to Rwandans, Armenians, and Jewish people-as
A. Cultural genocide
B. Ostracization
C. Genocide
D. Expulsion

B. Ethnocentric

A member of a new fundamentalist church believes that she has found the one true way to achieve salvation and members of other religions are pagans and will go directly to hell when they die. This individual is
A. xenocentric
B. ethnocentric
C. culturally relative
D. monophobic

True

Inequality, capitalism, and stratification are key concepts of the conflict perspective. True or False

D. the systematic destruction of a people's culture

We use the term cultural genocide to refer to
A. the systematic killing of an entire people.
B. the corporatization of indigenous culture
C. the natural decay of culture over time.
D. the systematic destruction of a people's culture.

C. Harriet Martineau

Which sociologist translated the works of Auguste Comte into English and emphasized the impact that the economy, laws, trade, and population could have on contemporary social problems?
A. Emile Durkheim
B. Jane Addams
C. Harriet Martineau
D. Talcott Parsons

A. an argot.

The use of the term "g-man," "honey boat," and "airmail" by sanitation workers in New York is an example of
A. an argot.
B. a taboo
C. linguistics
D. nonverbal language

True

William F. Ogburn made the distinction between the elements of material and nonmaterial culture. True or False?

D. all of these

According to Max Weber, investigators have an ethical obligation to accept research findings even when the data run counter to
A. their own personal views.
B. theoretically based explanations.
C. widely accepted beliefs.
D. all of these.

C. laws

In American society, we often formalize norms into
A. folkways.
B. mores.
C. laws.
D. values.

D. the American Sociological Association

The code of ethics for the discipline of sociology was developed by
A. Max Weber
B. the U.S. Department of Education.
C. the American Association of University Professors.
D. the American Sociological Association.

B. material culture

The physical or technological aspects of our daily lives are called
A. norms.
B. material culture.
C. nonmaterial culture.
D. values.

False

A magazine asks its readers to complete a survey that questions them about their sexual practices. Based on the responses that it receives, the magazine publishes an article entitled "The Sexual Practices of Men and Women in the U.S." THis magazine has conducted a valid random sample to support its article. True or False?

D. They prepare students for post-college careers.

Which of the following could be a manifest function of college?
A. They are a place to meet future husbands or wives.
B. They sometimes fail to teach students how to read or write effectively.
C. They help to maintain the economic status quo in the U.S.
D. They prepare students for post-college careers.

D. C. Wright Mills

_______ is most closely associated with the concept of the sociological imagination.

A. theorizing and gathering information.

Although some of the early sociologist saw themselves as social reformers, by the middle of the twentieth century, the focus of the discipline of sociology had shifted to
A. theorizing and gathering information.
B. a de-emphasis on the scientific method
C. applied sociology.
D. the advocacy of civil rights for minorities.

C. culture shock

A member of a rural Indian tribe in Central America who is suddenly taken to a large city, such as Mexico City, will probably experience
A. cultural relativity.
B. cultural diffusion.
C. culture shock.
D. cultural integration

True

Indigenous peoples' culture is often diminished as a result of land development plans. True or False?

D. all of these

Sociologists conduct a "review of the literature" to
A. refine the problem under study.
B. clarify possible techniques to be used in collecting data.
C. eliminate or reduce the number of avoidable mistakes they make.
D. all of these.

False

The mores, folkways, and values of a subculture are the only elements similar to the dominant majority. True or False?

C. interactionist

Which sociological perspective suggests that language and symbols offer a powerful way for a subculture to feel cohesive and maintain its identity?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. feminist

C. ethnocentrism.

The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others is called
A. culture shock.
B. cultural relativism
C. ethnocentrism
D. value stability.

A. settlement houses.

Early female sociologists such as Jane Addams were often active in poor urban areas as leaders of community centers known as
A. settlement houses.
B. communes.
C. collective homes.
D. utopian communities

B. conflict

Which sociological perspective argues that subcultures often emerge because the dominant society has unsuccessfully attempted to suppress a practice regarded as improper, such as the use of illegal drugs?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. feminist

C. reviewing the literature

What is commonly the second step in the scientific method?
A. defining the problem
B. selecting the research design
C. reviewing the literature
D. collecting and analyzing data

True

Content analysis of recent films has been used to demonstrate an increase in the amount of smoking shown in motion pictures. True or False?

True

Despite their differences, functionalists, conflict theorists, and interactionists would all agree that there is much more to sports than exercise or recreation. True or false?

True

Culture lag occurs because people in most societies are more likely to change their material culture. True or false?

A. set of cultural beliefs that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.

A dominant ideology is a
A. set of cultural beliefs that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.
B. subculture that rejects societal norms and values and seeks an alternative lifestyle.
C. specialized language used by members of a group or subculture
D. none of these

A. for preserving the confidentiality of his research

Why was Rik Scarce, a doctoral student at Washington State University, placed in jail in 1993?
A. for preserving the confidentiality of his research.
B. for raiding a university laboratory
C. for "snitching" on university administrators
D. for forging transcripts

C. overthrow the existing class system of capitalist societies

In The Communist Manifest, Marx argued that the working class must
A. ally with capitalists to build a better world
B. try to work toward a return to feudalism.
C. overthrow the existing class system of capitalist societies.
D. ignore all aspects of class divisions.

D. all of these

Researchers found which of the following to be true of cell phone users compared to landline users?
A. more likely to screen incoming calls
B. more likely to break off a call mid-survey
C. higher proportion of non-adults on cell phones
D. all of these

C. contains several different cultures

A society
A. is a group that owes allegiance to a larger group
B. is the largest form of human group.
C. contains several different cultures.
D. contains one subculture and many cultures.

B. anomie.

In many Third World nations, the pace of social chang eis very rapid and there is significant hunger and starvation, unemployment, and family disruption. Individuals who live in Third World nations are likely to suffer
A. dialecticism.
B. anomie
C. verstehen
D. dramaturgy

False

A primitive tribe that cultivates the soil by hand as much more culture than a modern, computerized society. True or False?

False

Sociology is the systematic study of social behavior and the study of individual personality differences. True or False?

A. culture shock

A man goes to a urologist who has been recommended by his family physician. When the urologist greets him in the examining room, the man discovers that the urologist is a female, and he is startled that a woman will examine him. He is experiencing
A. culture shock
B. cultural relativism
C. cultural universals
D. cultural integration.

False

Harriet Martineau and Ida B. Wells prevented the implementation of a racial segregation policy in the Chicago public school system in the early 1900s and helped to establish settlement houses in that city. True or False?

C. Developing nations lose their traditional values and begin to identify with the culture of core nations

Which of the following statements about globalization is correct?
A. Globalization is universally welcomed in all nations.
B. Most multinational corporations are uncooperative with the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, and The World Bank.
C. Developing nations lose their traditional values and begin to identify with the culture of core nations.
D. all of these

C. 7

Which number would be considered the mode of the following: 10-10-9-9-8-8-7-7-7-6-5?
A. 10
B. 8
C. 7
D. 5

A. a required number of data sources

Which of the following is not incorporated into the basic principles of the code of ethics for sociology?
A. a required number of data sources
B. respect for subjects' privacy
C. acknowledgment of research collaboration
D. disclosure of sources of financial support

D. all of these

Which of the following is an aspect of culture?
A. using American Sign Language
B. watching the Super Bowl game
C. eating in fast-food restaurants
D. all of these

C. the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality

Discovery is
A. the combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not previously exist.
B. the process of introducing new elements into a culture.
C. the process of making know or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality
D. the process by which cultural items spread to different groups

C. subcultures

In the U.S., professional gamblers, Armenian Americans, teenagers, and nudists are all examples of
A. cultures.
B. countercultures.
C. subcultures
D. contracultures

B. cultural diffusion

The popularity in Japan of the U.S.-born sport of baseball is an example of
A. cultural relativity.
B. cultural diffusion.
C. culture shock.
D. cultural integration

B. Starbucks in Asia

Which example does Schaefer use to illustrate the rapid globalization of culture?
A. Coca-Cola factories
B. Starbucks in Asia
C. military forces
D. discovery of DNA

False

Correlations are an indication that causality is always present. True or False?

True

Karl Marx saw the factory as the center of conflict between society's exploiters and its exploited masses. True or False?

D. protection of the respondent's anonymity AND defining the potential audience

What is a potential problem when sending out Internet-based surveys?
A. protection of the respondent's anonymity
B. defining the potential audience
C. the high costs of money and time
D. protection of the respondent's anonymity AND defining the potential audience

D. both gender and race of the interviewer

The results of an interview may be influenced by
A. the gender of the interview
B. the race of the interviewer
C. neither gender nor race
D. both gender and race of the interviewer

C. publicly accessible information and data, or data collected by another.

Secondary analysis includes a variety of research techniques that use
A. questionnaires and interviews
B. participant observation
C. publicly accessible information and data, or data collected by another
D. control groups

B. a hypothesis

The statement "Women who receive welfare are less likely than other women to have babies" is an example of
A. an operational definition.
B. a hypothesis
C. a research design
D. casual logic

B. reasons for the decreasing divorce rate in the U.S.

A social scientist would be likely to study the
A. composition of a meteorite discovered in a remote area of Siberia.
B. reasons for the decreasing divorce rate in the U.S.
C. newest procedure in heart transplant surgery.
D. possibility of life on Mars.

C. funeral ceremonies

In his research, George Murdock determined which of the following to be a cultural universal?
A. war
B. astronomy
C. funeral ceremonies
D. all of these

D. all of these

Norms are
A. rules governing specific behavior
B. rules deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society
C. rules commonly made by a government for the welfare of a society,
D. all of these

B. Auguste Comte

The discipline of sociology was given its name by the French theorist
A. Emile Durkheim
B. Auguste Comte
C. Harriet Martineau
D. Marcel Marceau

D. all of these

Norms are often violated when
A. they are weakly enforced
B. a subculture's norms vary from the norms of the dominant culture.
C. they conflict with one another.
D. all of these

B. cultural diffusion

English-speaking people in the U.S. commonly use words whose origins are from various African, Asian, and non-English-speaking European cultures. This is an example of
A. nonmaterial culture
B. cultural diffusion
C. culture shock
D. cultural relativity

D. all of these

We have little reliable data on human sexuality because
A. it is difficult for researchers to obtain accurate information about this sensitive subject.
B. until the AIDS crisis, there was little scientific demand for data on sexual behavior
C. government funding for studies of sexual behavior is controversial
D. all of these

B. conflict

Critics of television often suggest that executives of major television networks and movie corporations are wealthy White males who decide which programs or movies will be produced and which directors and actors will obtain jobs in the industry. This analysis reflects the _______ perspective.
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. global

A> the combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not previously exist

Invention is
A. the combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not previously exist
B. the process of introducing new elements into a culture
C. the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality
D. the process by which a cultural item is spread from group to group or society to society

B. Philadelphia

W.E.B. Du Bois conducted important social research on the lives of African Americans in which of the following cities?
A. New York
B. Philadelphia
C. Baltimore
D. Albany

C. a survey

To conduct a cross-cultural study of job discrimination against women, a sociologist interviews 75 women betwenn the ages of 20 and 40 in an American city, and 75 women in the same age group in a Canadian city. This study would be classified as
A. a secondary analysis
B. participant observation
C. a survey
D. a content analysis

True

Viewing people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture is known as cultural relativism. True or False?

A. functionalist

Which sociological perspective would most likely suggest that education is necessary for people to earn more money and advance in society for the purpose of social stability?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. feminist

D. the presence of McDonald's restaurants in Thailand, Saudi Arabia, and Japan

Which of the following is an example of cultural diffusion?
A. McDonald's serving samurai pork burgers in Thailand
B. McDonald's maintaining separate sections for female and male customers in Saudi Arabia
C. McDonald's serving chicken tatsuta sandwiches (fried chicken spiced with soy sausce and ginger and served with cabbage and mustard mayonnaise) in Japan
D. the presence of McDonald's restaurants is Thailand, Saudi Arabia, and Japan

D. all of these

Within the traditional Buddhist areas of Southeast Asia, which of the following is a foldway that reinforces patters of male dominance?
A. In the sleeping cars of trains, women do not sleep in the upper berths above men
B. Hospitals that house men on the first floor do not place women patients on the second floor
C. On clotheslines, women's attire is hung lower than that of men.
D. all of these

False

Argot is the French term sociologists use to refer to an underground or "sub" culture. True or False?

B. the state of Alaska

Which of the following is an example of a society?
A. an Amish community in Pennsylvania
B. the state of Alaska
C. a British rugby team
D. a small tribe on a remote South Pacific island

B. a fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside of it, and participate in a common culture.

A society is
A. the totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior
B. a fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside of it, and participate in a common culture.
C. the norms, values, and beliefs of a large group of people.
D. all of these

D. all of these

Contemporary conflict theorists are concerned with the conflict between
A. women and men
B. cities and suburbs
C. Blacks and Whites
D. all of these

A. is more resistant to change than material culture.

Nonmaterial culture
A. is more resistant to change than material culture.
B. is less resistant to change than material culture.
C. changes at the same pace as material culture
D. does not change once it has been created

A. functionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to argue that the existence of big-city political machines suggests that these political organizations satisfy certain basic social needs?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. Global perspective

D. all of these

Which of the following is true regarding feminist researchers?
A. tend to involve and consult subjects more
B. more oriented towards seeking change
C. want to raise public consciousness
D. all of these

C. ethnographic

Observation research is the most common form of _______ research, which relies on what is seen in the field and in naturalistic settings more than it does on statistical data.
A. quantitative
B. qualitative
C. ethnographic
D. experimental

True

The median value of this dataset [1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14] is seven. True or False?

C. Germany

In which country did Wal-Mart have to pull out in 2006 due in part to the company's failure to adjust to the national culture?
A. Canada
B. Brazil
C. Germany
D. France

A. functionalist

An argot is a specialized language used by members of a subculture. Doctors and nurses, for example, have developed a language system that is not easily understood by patients, but enables medical professionals to communicate more easily, rapidly, and precisely with one another. Which sociological perspective is likely to emphasize the value of this specialized medial language?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. feminist

B. define the problem

if you were interested in studying the relationship between date and aquaintance rape victims and the characteristics of the rapist, your first step would be to
A. review the literature on date and acquaintance rap
B. define the problem
C. create a hypothesis
D. choose a research design

A. functionalist

Given that cultural diffusion could upset the stability of a society, which perspective is most likely to argue that most cultures resist new cultural components that do not fit comfortably into their social system?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. feminist

True

Selection of a research design will influence both the cost of a research project and the amount of time needed to collect the results of the research. True or False?

D. Talcott Parsons

Which sociologist saw "society as a vast network of connected parts, each of which contributes to the maintenance of the system as a while?"
A. Karl Marx
B. Erving Goffman
C. Max Weber
D. Talcott Parsons

C. the existence of fast-food franchise in countries throughout the world

George Ritzer's concept "The McDonaldization of society" refers to
A. the placement of a McDonald's franchise in every community with more than 5,000 inhabitants by the year 2010
B. the domination of numerous sectors of societies throughout the world by principles initially used by fast-food restaurants.
C. the existence of a fast-food franchise in countries throughout the world.
D. the placement of a McDonald's franchise in every community with more than 5,000 inhabitants AND the domination of numerous sectors of societies throughout the world by principles initially used by fast-food restaurants

C. the Hawthorne effect

A sociologist decides to study the interaction among students in the college's computer center. When the students realize they are under observation, they become she and reserved in their interactions. This is an example of
A. replication.
B. secondary analysis
C. the Hawthorne effect.
D. value neutrality.

C. cultural relativism

A U.S. sociologist receives a grant to study racial and religious prejudice among the people of Southeast Asia. The sociologist makes a serious and unbiased effort to evaluate the norms, values, and customs of these groups in light of the distinctive cultures of which they are a part. This is an example of
A. xenocentrism
B. ethnocentrism
C. cultural relativism
D. cultural deconstruction

True

One of Robert Merton;s most significant contributions to sociology was the attempt to merge the microlevel and macrolevel approaches to the study of society. True or False?

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