Myocardial Infarction, Peripheral artery disease, angina, stroke and renal failure are all increased by which condition?
Vasopressin is valuable in the treatment of septic shock not only for its pressor effect but it also causes_____?
Angiotensin I and Angiotensin !! are converted to lower blood pressure by which agents?
Which of the following is NOT a complication of diuretics
Which of the following agents would you NOT recommend for a patient that has heart failure and needs an inotropic agent?
Thiazie diuretics and B-Blockers are first line agents for treatment of _____?
Mild or uncomplicated hypertension
Reduction in peripheral artery pressure, increase in renal blood flow, increase in C.O. are all effects of which agent?
What are the effects of cardiac glycosides?
Increases myocardial contractility
which agent (Hormone) increases sodium and water reabsorption?
This agent is effective in treating atrial and ventricular arrhythmias
Class I A
Blocking reabsorption of NaCL in the proximal tubule and descending limb of the loop of henle is a characteristic of which type of diuretic?
Which class of antiarrhythmic is limited to treating only ventricular arrhythmias?
Class I B
Non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) should be used w/ caution because significant interactions can occur when used in conjuction with?
Diuretics that produce their effect by inhibiting the reabsorption of Chloride and Sodium in the ascending limb of the loop of henle are known as?
Which class agent is commonly used in the management of supraventricular arrhythmias, but have activity against ventricular arrhythmias as well
Class I C
Where do potassium-sparing diuretics block reabsorption of sodium?
Torsades de pointes is commonly caused by a depletion in which nutritional element?
Combining with H+ ions and removing them from a solition is the role of?
Decreased blood supply, intrarenal failure, and post renal failure are all examples of what type of renal failure?
The collecting ducts are the only structures NOT damaged in which type of renal failure?
What is the composition of the Nephron?
-Proximal Convoluted tubule
-Loop of Henle
-Distal Convoluted Tubule
Hypoxia induced Respiratory Alkalosis is the most common cause of ___ in a patient with pulmonary disease?
What does Renin do for systemic blood pressure, and where is it secreted?
Increase in Systemic B/P
Secreted in the Juxtaglomerular
Primary active transport and secondary active secretion are important mechanisms in which renal function?
Reabsorption of sodium
Na, K+, and CL are all substances cleared from plasma by which anatomical structure?
Glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure determines what factor?
Insulin, Aldosterone and Beta-adrenergic stimulation stimulate uptake of which electrolyte?
Fluid and electrolyte imbalances make which physiological condition the most complicated acid-base imbalance to treat?
Proteins are absent in the glomerular filtrate, but otherwise it is the same as ____?
NA, K+, CL and Bicarbonate are totaly reabsobed in the ____?
The thick portion of the loop of henle is highly permiable to?
Contraction Alkalosis is the term used to describe a change in pH caused by?
When a patient has metabolic acidosis, what other levels of metabolic measurements will also be increased?
BUN and Creatinine
Pleural effusion is a pulmonary manifestation of which disease process?
This autoimmune disease affects the alveolar and glomerular basement membranes and causes hemorrhage and fibrosis?