cultural diversity: the color of justice

42 terms by KatieKat2013 

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the color of justice: race, ethnicity, and crime in america

In_____the Supreme Court banned execution of those who were under age 18 at the time of their crime.

2005

In_____the Supreme Court banned imposing the death penalty on a defendant convincted of rape.

Furman v. Georgia (1972)

_______ Banned executing those with intellectual disabilities.

D.

_______affirmed the use of guided discretion in death penalty states.

McClesky v. Kemp

_____times as many whites attend college as are under correctional supervision.

Four

In 2009, more than _____ people were incarcerated in federal and state prison and local jails.

2.1 million

About ____ percent of Hispanic males are under correctional supervision.

8

Less than _____ percent of white males are under correctional supervision.

3

Nearly ____ percent of African American males are under correctional supervision.

20

Information concerning the racial and ethnic trends in victimization for juveniles is:

scarce

The juvenile justice system was designed to be more concerned about rehabilitation than:

retribution

The number of juveniles arrested increased _____ percent between 1985 and 1994.

100

Among _______, juvenile property crime victimization rates do not vary significantly from adult victimization rates.

Hispanics

The small racial differences in outcomes at the initial stages of the process that accumulate and become more pronounced as minority youths are processed further into the juvenile justice system are known as:

compound risk

The proportion of the total population younger than age 18 that reached each stage in the juvenile justice process is called:

compound probability

The United States Supreme Court ruled in ______ that hearings determining whether juvenile cases will be heard in adult court must measure up to "the essentials of due process and fair treatment."

Kent v. United States (1966)

The USSC first addressed racial discrimination in jury selection in:

Strauder v. West Virginia

While Baston seemed to offer hope that the goal of a representative jury was attainable, an examination of cases decided since 1986 suggests:

otherwise

Concerns about false convictions also are based on research showing not only that a disproportionate number of those exonerated have been racial minorities but that the disparity is particularly stark in cases of:

interracial sexual assault

Sentencing studies from the 1930s through the 1960s usually used _____ statistical techniques.

bivariate

The numerous studies of racial disparity in sentencing conducted during the 1970s and 1980s are notable for their _____ theorhetical and methodological sophistication.

variation in

American metropolitan communities are characterized by strong patterns of:

residential segregation

The term secondary labor market refers to:

available low-paying jobs with limited fringe benefits and uncertain prospects for the future.

People of color are victimized by violent and property crimes at a ____ rate than white Americans.

higher

Office of Management and Budgest racial and ethnic categories are:

a socialpolitical construct

_____ are the fastest growing racial or ethnic group in the US.

Hispanic

Experts regard the concept of race as:

primarily a social construct

More than half of the Hispanic population in the US lives in:

California and Texas

Discrimination is a difference based on _____ without reference to an individual's behavior or qualifications.

differential treatment of groups

Heather MacDonald argues the primary cause of the high rate of incarceration of African Americans is:

involvement in criminal behavior

Population concentration translates into:

political power and the ability to control agencies

It is difficult to make useful comparisons of the criminal justice experiences of different racial and ethnic groups because:

there has been little comparative research

The basic premise of _____ theory is that the law is used to maintain the power of a society's dominant group and control the individuals that threaten that power.

conflict

_____ discrimination occurs at all stages of the criminal justice system, in all places, and at all times.

Systemic

The federal government first developed and official definition of poverty in _________

1964

Sociologists and psychologists generally agree that _____ is the primary unit for transmitting values to children.

the family

The African American unemployment rate has been consistently about ___ the white rate.

twice

American metropolitan communities are characterized by strong patterns of:

residential segregation

Historically, many property owners in the North adopted restrictive covenants that prohibited the sale of property to:

African Americans or Jews

_____ involves rejection of both the goals and accepted means of achieving them.

Retreatism

______ theory holds that the administration of criminal justice reflects the unequal distribution of power in society.

Conflict

In 2003, the governor of _____ commuted the sentences of all of the state's death row inmates to life in prison because of his concerns for systemic error.

Illinois.

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