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glasnost

Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.

active labor policies

government programs that are designed to help the unemployed find jobs through training, creating jobs, subsidizing employment, and aid in their job search.

bundesrat

The upper house, or Federal Council, of the German Diet (legislature).

bundestag

primary or lower house of German Parliament, consisting of 603 delegates elected by the people

capabilities approach

Includes: 1) Physical/bodily capabilities, 2) Mental capabilities, 3) Social capabilities, 4) Capacity for singularity.

countries

Distinct, politically defined territories that encompass political institutions, cultures, economies, and ethnic and other social identities

centrally planned economy

economic systems in which the state determines production, consumption, and pricing of commodities

Chinese Judiciary

Constitutionally independent but largely under control of the CCP.

Chinese politburo

a group of members that oversee the Communist Party in China

Christian Democracy

- an ideological tradition within European conservatism that is characterized by a commitment to the social market and qualified economic intervention

Comparative Politics

method of inquiry that seeks to explain government and politics by examining multiple cases taken from several different political systems

crisis of governability

when states have trouble making their laws effective the authority of the state is not respected and public order and programs of the state deteriorate

Development

improvement in human well-being through economic advancement

extreme market democracy

Rich democracy where elite parties are successful

global production chain

order in the us, resources from africa, made in asia, shipped around the world

Great Leap Forward

economic and social plan used in China from 1958 to 1961 which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern industrial society.

Great Proletarian Revolution

Mao Zedong's great effort in the mid-1960s to weed out capitalist tendencies that he believed had developed in China

Instrumentalism

hypothesizes that violence is provoked by political leader who manipulate symbols and beliefs to set groups against each other for political benefits

Khomeini

Iranian religious leader of the Shiites

Majles

Iran's unicameral parliament, consisting of 290 elected representatives

market

the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold

nomenklatura

The former Soviet Communist Party's system of controlling all important administrative appointments, thereby ensuring the support and loyalty of those who managed day-to-day affairs.

Perestroika

mikhail gorbachev's plan to reform the soviet union by restructing the economy

political culture

commonly shared attitudes, beliefs, and core values about how government should operate

political model

Model of social movements that focuses on the structure of political opportunities.

public sector employment

people who work for some kind of government agency

Russian Federal Assembly

Bicameral: Federal Council and Duma

Russian State Duma

is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia. It has 29 Committees.

Shia Islam

is the belif that people should have Mohammeds descands as their leaders

shock therapy

policies in formerly communist countries that envisage as rapid a shift to a market economy as possible

social democracy

a political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system

state corporatism

a political system in which the state requires all members of a particular economic sector to join an officially designated interest group

strong states

states that are able to fulfill basic tasks: defend their territory, make and enforce rules and rights, collect taxes, and manage the economy

US political culture

The broad pattern of ideas, beliefs, and values about citizens and government held by a population. US: democracy, freedom, and equality

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