What are the 3 primary functions of the urinary system?
excretion - removal of wastes
elimination - discharge of water products into the environment
homeostatic regulation - maintaining blood balance and blood pressure
What are the functional units of the kidneys?
What functions do the nephrons do?
What are the components of the urinary system?
What is another name for urination?
What is filtrate?
similar to blood plasma
Where does filtration take place?
What 2 things does the nephron contain?
renal tubule and renal corpusle
What happens during filtration?
blood pressure forces water and dissolved solutes out of the glomerular capillaries an into the capsular space
What are the 3 layers of connective tissue protecting and stablizing each kidney?
perinephric fat capsule
What is the job of the PCT (proximal convoluted tubule) in the nephron?
reabsoption of water, ions and organic nutrients
What is the job of the DCT (distal convoluted tubule) in the nephron?
reabsorption of water, sodium ions and calcium ions (under hormonal control)
secretion of drugs, acids and toxins
What is the job of the nephron loop?
further reabsorption of water in the descending limb
further reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the ascending limb
What is the job of the collection ducts?
reabsoption of water
secretion of sodium, potassium, hydrogen and bicarbonate ions
What is the function of the papillary duct?
delivery of urine to the minor calyx
What 2 things does the collection system contain?
What percentage of the cortical nephrons are located in the cortex of the kidney?
What percentage of the nephrons are located in the medulla and what are the called?
What is the vasa recta?
long, straight capillaries that parallel the nephron loop (vasa, vessel + recta)
Which portion of the nephron are in the cortex?
Why don't plasma proteins pass into the capsular space under normal circumstances?
Damage to which part of the nephron would interfere with hormonal control of the blood pressure?
What are the three distinct process of urine formation in the kidney?
What occurs when the plasms concentration of a substance exceeds its tubular maximum?
What effects would increased aldosterone have on the K+ concentration in urine?
What effect would a decrease in the Na+ concentration have on the pH of tubular fluid?
How would the lack of jextamedullary nephrons affects the volume and osmotic concentration of urine?
Why does a decrease in the amount of Na+ in the distal convoluted tubule lead to an increase in blood pressure?