covers an area of 10,000 metres squared. One hectare = 2.471 acres.
Lines of longitude that run north and south on a globe or map
lines run north and south on and are located every six miles starting at the meridian line.
land measures one mile by one mile and normally contains 640 acres.
A geographical region where the soils evolved under similar conditions of climate, vegetation and other soil-forming factors.
lines run east and west on a map and are located every six miles. One township is six miles by six miles square or 36 square miles.
Western Grid Survey System
Applies a grid of imaginary horizontal and vertical lines onto the map in order to divide western Canada into equal-sized tracts of land.
land that can be developed in the foreseeable future
agricultural uses of land
Farmland, Ranches, Livestock Operations, Specialty Operations
production of grains, forages, mixed crops, certified seed operations, specialty crops and various livestock operations
feedlots, hog, dairy and poultry (chicken and turkey) farms.
include alternative livestock, greenhouses and specialty horticulture, organic production, agro-forestry, agritourism, aquaculture and others
Grazing is approved on public land through issuance of a variety of dispositions, ranging from leases, permits and allotments to licences and Provincial Grazing Reserves. Grazing reserves are government-run community pastures where ranchers pay for their livestock to graze and be managed while on public land
Canadian Wheat Board
Wheat, rice, barley, oats, rye, and maize (corn) are the six dominant cereal crops
is associated with beer production and as food for humans and animals. is exceptionally nutritional, as it is a high-fibre, low-cholesterol food
are an excellent livestock feed as they have high levels of protein and essential minerals.
one of the world's major cereal crops. has the greatest tolerance of varied climatic and soil conditions.
flaxseed, soybeans, mustard seed, safflower and sunflower seed.
Flax is a valuable and powerful means of treating fatty degeneration in cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and other diseases.
dry peas, lentils, canary seed and mustard seed.
Forage production aids in soil management, provides a rotation option, helps in the prevention of soil erosion, and increases the nutrient levels in the soil
Alberta's commercial berry industry
strawberries, raspberries, saskatoons, black currants
Manure management, odour control, food safety, greenhouse gases, animal welfare and environmental management are just a handful of the many challenges that can make or break _________ production as a viable and rewarding enterprise.
industry is largely based on the sale of milk and cream, although the sale of veal calves, semen, embryos, and live animals also contributes to the economy.
three main types of dairy production
Purebred Breeders, Fluid Milk Producers, Veal Production
price of milk is controlled by
requires a large capital investment for land, buildings, cages, feed handling and storage equipment. Feed, labour, veterinary and medication costs, and the cost of chicks account for the main expenses once an operation begins production.
supply managed commodity
Chicken production in Canada, like milk production, is
Consumer trends and Innovations
specialty markets, such as malt barley, specific canola varieties for niche oil markets, beans, peas, spices and even vegetable crops.
All survyed land falls into one of two categories
unsubdivided or subdivided.
The 4th meridian
forms the border between Alberta and Saskatchewan
largest land unit within the grid system. It measures six miles by six miles (36 square miles).
South Alberta Land Registration District
Township numbers 1 to 34
North Alberta Land Registration District
Township numbers 35 to 126
16 legal subdivisions, approximately 40 acres or 16 hectares
base of townships was re-established to equal exactly six miles in width, occur at the third township line (12 miles north of the 49th parallel) and every fourth township line thereafter
ununiform parcels are known as
metes and bounds system
used for lands that are irregular in shape or which follow irregular topography and can't be described by reference to the standard survey method.
Metes and bounds
described by measurement, bearings and boundaries
Department of Fisheries and Oceans
Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO)
responsible for the Fisheries Act, and the Navigable Water Protection Act
The Fisheries Act
regulates pollution of waters in which fish are present, and harmful alteration, disruption or destruction of fish habitat.
any body of water, coastal or inland, in its natural state or man-made, and capable of being navigated by floating vessels of any description for the purpose of transportation, recreation or commerce.
responsibility of Environment Canada
Canadian Environmental Protection Act, Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, Species At Risk Act, Migratory Birds Convention Act
Farm Debt Mediation Act
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)
Natural Resources Conservation Board
Natural Resources Conservation Board
amendments enhance the province's ability to deal with nuisances, such as odour, noise, dust, smoke or other disturbances resulting from an agricultural operation.
supports and promotes the protection, enhancement and wise use of the environment. It recognizes the impact of development, polluters paying for their actions and other such acts
Enviromental Protection and Enhancement Act
It provides for registration, transfer of allocation and transfer of licences
Alberta Environmental Farm Plan Program
non-profit company that helps farmers and ranchers identify environmental opportunities and challenges on their own land
is comprised of a team of industry, government and other stakeholders
Factors Affecting Rural Properties
Soil, Water, Climate
determine a farmer's success
Soil quality, type, fertility, and management practices
tests are conducted to determine if the soil is of the proper consistency and type to allow for the construction of sewage disposal fields
vertical cross-section showing the soil extending from the surface into the underlying parent material
Brown, Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey and Grey
Black Soil Zones
lie in a narrow, north-south belt from Edmonton to Calgary and along the foothills to the Montana border
Black Soil Zones
because of favourable moisture conditions and high organic matter, they account for one third of the land used for agriculture
sand, silt or clay,
particle size analysis
determination of the percentage of sand, silt and clay in a soil sample is known as
Erosion, Low Fertility, Moisture limitations
evaporation of water into the atmosphere from the leaves and stems of plants.
responsible for managing and granting water use agreements
Irrigation Districts (ID)
topography and location
major factors determining Alberta's climate
Agricultural Climate Elements
precipitation and temperature.
Heating Degree Days
degree-days are calculated by subtracting the daily average temperature from the base temperature of 18º C.
frost-free period is the number of days between the average last date of 0º C in the spring and the average first date of 0º C in the fall
Growing Season Length
The ______ season is longer than the frost-free period.
effects on the environment
manure management, noise and odour
Beneficial Management Practices
achieve economic and environmental sustainability
protecting water quality
practices as manure management, sustainable grazing practices, management of land along water bodies, and proper siting of livestock operations.
among the most valuable and productive, yet vulnerable, areas for the agriculture sector
improve environmental quality
direct seeding and zero tillage, proper fertilizer management, proper manure management and precision farming
Zero-tillage, Minimum tillage, Summer fallow
bored well, drilled well
two types of routine water analysis
chemical analysis, bacteriological analysis
Three types of Soil tests
Percolation Test, Saturation Percentage Test, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR)
situations where the soil percolation rate is either too fast or too slow,
considered when all other forms of treatment and disposal are not feasible.
A real property report
will show the location of all improvements relative to property boundaries, as well as all easements or rights-of-way, location of encroachments and property compliance with municipal requirements
Farm Credit Corporation
It is the most common source of farm mortgage financing other than the private lenders
Agricultural Financial Services Corporation (AFSC)
provincial Crown corporation providing funding to beginning farmers, farming operations and commercial agricultural enterprises
National Housing Act
Mortgage Insurers are restricted by
Non-profit company in Alberta that invests in innovative ideas that add value to agricultural commodities