Ch. 14

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Which of the following describes an effect of caffeine use in the athlete?

It stimulates fatty acid release

What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low- or moderate-intensity activity?

FAT

Why should fiber-rich foods be avoided in an athlete's pregame meal?

The fiber retains water in the GI tract that would otherwise be absorbed

What nutrient becomes depleted most rapidly during physical exercise?

Water

What nutrient is important in the transport of oxygen in blood and in muscle tissue and in energy transformation reactions?

iron

Hyponatremia refers to low blood levels of

sodium.

During physical performance, what is the role of creatine phosphate?

Transfer of energy to make ATP

Which of the following should be a component of a healthy diet for athletes?

Nutrient-dense foods

What cellular organelles are responsible for producing ATP aerobically?

Mitochondria

Which of the following is a characteristic of human growth hormone use in athletes?

Excessive use shortens life span

Which of the following ergogenic aids increases the risk for acromegaly?

growth hormone

Which of the following is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?

Protein synthesis is inhibited during exercise

In weight training, muscle strength can best be emphasized by combining a

low number of repetitions with heavy weight.

Physical performance is noticeably affected when body water loss first reaches

2%

Which of the following is a feature of sports anemia?

It is not a true iron-deficiency anemia

Which of the following is a feature of water metabolism during exercise?

Sweat losses can exceed the capacity of the GI tract to absorb water resulting in some degree of dehydration

A person's "VO2 max" is the maximum

rate of oxygen consumption.

The volume of blood ejected by the heart each minute is known as the

cardiac output.

Which of the following is a characteristic of sodium in athletes?

There is a direct correlation between heat-induced cramps and the amount of sodium lost in the sweat

Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by

putting a demand on muscles repeatedly by making them work harder.

What may, in part, account for the reduced risk of gallbladder disease in women who engage in regular physical activity?

Reduction of blood lipids

What high-energy compound acts as a reservoir of energy for the maintenance of a steady supply of ATP?

Creatine phosphate

What is the name of the biochemical pathway describing the conversion of lactate to glucose?

Cori cycle

Substantial health benefits may be achieved by engaging in a moderately intense level of exercise at a frequency of at least

2.5 hours/week.

Which of the following is generally not associated with a regular program of physical fitness?

Reduced bone density

Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by

putting a demand on muscles repeatedly by making them work harder.

Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes?

High-carbohydrate diet

The volume of blood ejected by the heart each minute is known as the

cardiac output.

What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?

Carbohydrates

Which of the following substances increases in muscles during intense exercise?

Lactate

What substance contains the chemical energy that drives immediate muscle contraction?

ATP

The first sign of dehydration is typically

fatigue

What is muscle atrophy?

Loss of muscle size and strength

Which of the following is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?

Protein synthesis is inhibited during exercise

Which of the following are features of physical activity and exercise?

Exercise, but not physical activity, is thought to be vigorous, structured, and planned

What nutrient is important in the transport of oxygen in blood and in muscle tissue and in energy transformation reactions?

iron

Why should fiber-rich foods be avoided in an athlete's pregame meal?

The fiber retains water in the GI tract that would otherwise be absorbed

Which of the following is a characteristic of sodium in athletes?

There is a direct correlation between heat-induced cramps and the amount of sodium lost in the sweat

What is the name of the biochemical pathway describing the conversion of lactate to glucose?

Cori cycle

The effect of regular exercise on heart and lung function is known as

cardiorespiratory conditioning.

A muscle that increases in size in response to use is an example of

hypertrophy.

Which of the following is least likely to affect the size of the body's glycogen stores?

Type of supplements taken

n the endurance athlete, the first priority of nutrient repletion should be

glycogen

What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low- or moderate-intensity activity?

Fat

Which of the following describes fat utilization during physical activity?

Fat represents the major fuel source during sustained, moderate activity

What is the minimum amount of fluid that an athlete should drink for each pound of body weight lost during an activity?

1/2 liter

Which of the following is a feature of specific ergogenic aids?

Contain nutrients or nutritional substances in
quantities much greater than the RDA or that found
in food.
Produce a pseudo pharmacological (druglike) effect that may improve performance.
Are often not scientifically tested or proven to
enhance performance.
Are often promoted by anecdotal evidence or testimonials from famous athletes.
Are very fashionable and can often be regarded as a fad.
Are usually very expensive.

What should be the composition of the last (pregame) meal before an athletic event?

High-carbohydrate, low-fiber, providing 300 to 800 kcal

What high-energy compound acts as a reservoir of energy for the maintenance of a steady supply of ATP?

Creatine phosphate

What may, in part, account for the reduced risk of gallbladder disease in women who engage in regular physical activity?

Alteration of hormonal profile

Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by

putting a demand on muscles repeatedly by making them work harder.

n the endurance athlete, the first priority of nutrient repletion should be

glycogen

What is muscle atrophy?

Loss of muscle size and strength

What is the Cori cycle?

A process in the liver that regenerates glucose from lactate released by muscles

Which of the following is a characteristic of glycogen synthesis after a bout of strenuous training?

Glycogen repletion is enhanced most by eating foods with a high glycemic index

Which of the following is a characteristic of sports anemia?

It is a temporary condition requiring no treatment

Which of the following ergogenic aids increases the risk for acromegaly?

Growth hormone

In weight training, muscle strength can best be emphasized by combining a

low number of repetitions with heavy weight.

What substance contains the chemical energy that drives immediate muscle contraction?

ATP

What is the usual fate of muscle glycogen during exercise?

Utilized as a fuel within the muscle cells only

What may, in part, account for the reduced risk of gallbladder disease in women who engage in regular physical activity?

Reduction of blood lipids

Which of the following are features of physical activity and exercise?

Exercise, but not physical activity, is thought to be vigorous, structured, and planned

What type of chemicals are DHEA and androstendione?

Hormones

Which of the following is a characteristic of human growth hormone use in athletes?

Excessive use shortens life span

Which of the following is generally not associated with a regular program of physical fitness?

Reduced bone density

Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes?

High-carbohydrate diet

Which of the following is a feature of sports anemia?

It is not a true iron-deficiency anemia

Which of the following best exemplifies an activity that promotes flexibility?

Yoga

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