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test 2

A. primary groups

Which type of group is most important for socialization?
A. primary group
B. coalitions
C. out groups
D. all of these

A. when children imitate the people around them, particularly family members.

According to George Herbert Mead's stages of the self, the preparatory stage occurs
A. when children imitate the people around them, particularly family members.
B. when children become able to pretend to be other people.
C. when children grasp not only their own social positions but also those of others around them.
D. when we observe ourselves through the looking-glass self

C. status that dominates other and thereby determines a person's general position within society.

A master status is a
A. term used to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society.
B. social position attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
C. status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position within society.
D. series of social relationships linking a person directly to other and therefore indirectly to still more people.

A. generalized other

Which term was used by George Herbert Mead to refer to the child's awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole?
A. generalized other
B. significant other
C. impression management
D. symbolic other

B. People may be stigmatized for deviant behaviors in which they no longer engage.

Which of the following statements is true relative to stigma and deviance in the U.S.?
A. Many people with "normal" appearance have cosmetic surgery each year because of the "beauty myth."
B. People may be stigmatized for deviant behaviors in which they no longer engage.
C. A person need not be guilty of a crime to be stigmatized.
D. all of these

A. to better understand German involvement in the annihilation of Jews in World War II

What was the motivation behind Stanley Milgram's experimental study of obedience?
A. to better understand German involvement in the annihilation of Jews in World War II
B. to better understand the deterrence factor of the death penalty
C. self-esteem issues
D. a federal government grant

D. formal social control

Social control carried out by authorized agents- such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers- is called
A. neutralization
B. conformity
C. informal social control
D. formal social control

True

The mass media is an example of a social institution. True or False?

False

Research supports the position that some forms of crime and deviance have genetic roots. True or False?

C. Interactionist

The analysis of how the "definition of the situation" can mold the thinking and personality of the individual is associated with the _______ perspective.
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. feminist

A. NAFTA

Trade barriers between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico were dismantled as a result of
A. NAFTA
B. the Zapatista revolution of 1910
C. the collapse of the National Liberation Army in 1966
D. the demise of the peso

True

Control theory reminds us that while the media may focus on crime and disorder, most members of most societies conform to and obey basic norms. True or False?

C. differential association

Bob works as a cashier in a supermarket. His boss instructs him to include the price of a new broom- which Bob's boss has deceptively placed near the register- on everyone's bill. Bob's boss also encourages him to change the dates on expired food items so the items can continue to be sold. Eventually, Bob begins to develop his own deceptive sales practices. This is an example of
A. labeling
B. anomie
C. differential association
D. dramaturgy

C. the feminization of

By 2008, the number of female householders accounted for 51% of the poor in the U.S. This alarming trend is referred to as _______ poverty.
A. discriminating
B. elementary
C. the feminization of
D. dramatic

C. 50%

About what percentage of youths ages 8-18 uses the Internet every day?
A. 15%
B. 30%
C. 50%
D. 75%

C. degradation ceremony

An inmate enters prison and is stripped of his/her clothing and advised that from this point on he/she will be referred to only by number. This is an example of
A. anticipatory socialization
B. a rite of passage.
C. a degradation ceremony
D. ascription.

True

Students from lower-middle-class families are as likely to attend college as students from wealthy families, as long as they try hard. True or False?

C. informal social control

Social control carried out casually by people through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule is known as
A. neutralization
B. conformity
C. informal social control
D. formal social control

C. Interactionist

According to a report by the AMerican Association of University Women, girls face some important challenges resulting from differential treatment based on sexism in U.S. schools. This analysis most likely reflects which sociological perspective?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. global

False

THe members of your nuclear family, your athletic coach, a teacher in a large lecture hall, and your best friend are all significant others. True or False?

B. conflict

WHich sociological perspective would be particularly concerned about studies that show that White criminal offenders receive shorter sentences than comparable Latino and African- American offenders?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. feminist

C. surgeons and panhandlers

In national surveys of occupational prestige rankings in the U.S., the highest score and the lowest scores are received by _________, respectively.
A. librarians and janitors
B. sociologists and street-corner drug dealers
C. surgeons and panhandlers
D. dentists and waiters and waitresses

A. maintain the privileges of the powerful individuals and group within a society.

The conflict view holds that social institutions
A. maintain the privileges of the powerful individuals and group within a society.
B. preserve order and equality
C. train personnel equitable
D. provide and maintain a sense of basic fairness

A. the family

As children grow older, their peer groups become more and more important relative to the influence of
A. the family.
B. the state.
C. religion.
D. the mass media.

D all of these

Which of the following statements about crime rates in the U.S. is correct?
A. Reported crime in the U.S. is high, and the public continues to regard crime as a major social problem.
B. There has been a significant decline in violent crime in the U.S. in recent years.
C. Crimes committed by women have increased.
D. all of these

C. the sinking of the Titanic

What historical tragedy is noted in the text to illustrate the impact of social class on life chances?
A. the terrorist attacks of 9/11
B. the assassination of John Kennedy
C. the sinking of the Titanic
D. the sniper attacks in Washington, D.C. area

False

Peasants required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services is referred to as a caste system. True or False?

B. has been a problem becuase members of racial and ethnic minority groups have not always trusted law enforcement agencies and have often refrained from contacting the police

Underreporting of crime in the U.S.
A. has not been a problem in recent years.
B. has been a problem becuase members of racial and ethnic minority groups have not always trusted law enforcement agencies and have often refrained from contacting the police\
C. is laregly the result of White males failing to report crimes because of their insistence on maintaining a macho image.
D. has been problem because members of minority groups often refrained from contacting the police AND it is largely the result of White males failing to report crimes becuase of their insistence on maintaining a macho image.

True

Some of the most difficult socialization challenges and rites of passage occur in the later years of life. True or False?

False

The high degree of anonymity allowing for uncivil behavior when using the internet has resulted in calls for the establishment of formal rules for online behavior. True or False?

A. personality

Which term is used to refer to a person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior?
A. personality
B. social promotion
C. socialization
D. human nature

C. It is the interaction between environmental factors and biological inheritance that is important in human development.

In the nature versus nurture debate, which position do social scientists take?
A. Environmental factors are more important than biological inheritance in human development.
B. Biological inheritance is more important than environmental factors in human development.
C. It is the interaction between environmental factors and biological inheritance that is important in human development.
D. Biological factors are irrelevant in human development.

D. all of these

Which of the following do sociologists recognize as an agent of socialization?
A. the state
B. religion
C. television
D. all of these

D. role taking

The process of mentally assuming the perspective of another, thereby enabling one to respond from that imagined viewpoint, is known as
A. role strain
B. resocialization
C. face-work
D. role taking

B. conflict

Which sociological perspective emphasizes that schools in the U.S. foster competition through built- in systems of rewards and punishments?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. global

B. conformity

Which of the following terms refers to going along with one's peers, with peers defined as individuals of a person's own status who have no special right to direct that person's behavior?
A. labeling
B. conformity
C. deviance
D. obedience

D. all of these

Which of the following has a role in maintaining social control?
A. the family
B. the government
C. the peer group
D. all of these

A. early childhood deprivation could always be reversed with intense resocialization.

Harry Harlow's research with rhesus monkeys indicated that
A. early childhood deprivation could always be reversed with intense resocialization.
B. social isolation had a damaging effect on the monkeys.
C. there was no comparison between the development of the monkeys and human development.
D. midlife deprivation was more serious than early childhood deprivation

A. expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females

Gender roles are
A. expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
B. the biologically determined patterns of behavior that are appropriate for males and females
C. universally consistent learned behaviors of males and females
D. the biological characteristics of males and females such as genital organs, hormones, body hair.

D. all of these

Children shape and form their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior based on cultural messages they receive from
A. parents
B. siblings
C. the mass media, religion, and educational institutions.
D. all of these

B. a mental hospital

Which of the following is considered a total institution?
A. a high school
B. a mental hospital
C. a Girl Scout Troop
D. THe New York Mets

False

Coalitions are the most important form of group for primary socialization. True or False?

True

The second stage of development is George Herbert Mead's model is the game stage. True or False?

B. sensorimotor

A child spends a log of time putting objects into his mouth and touching everything in sight. This child is probably in which stage of development, according to Jean Piaget?
A. concrete operational
B. sensorimotor
C. formal operational
D. preoperational

True

Slavery still exists in the U.S. today, as the conviction of a wealthy New York couple for holding two Indonesian women in 2007 demonstrated. True or False?

True

Individuality is often lost within total institutions. True or False?

B. social structure

Which of the following terms refers to the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships?
A. socialization
B. social structure
C. social interaction
D. culture

D. white-collar crimes

WHat terms is used to refer to crimes committed by individuals in the course of their daily business activities?
A. professional crime
B. organized crime
C. index crime
D. white-collar crime

A. anomie theory

A sociologist studies how a teacher;s attitudes toward particular students affects students' performance. Students of similar abilities who are "teacher's pets" perform at a high level, and students who are viewed as "troublemakers" perform poorly. This would illustrate which explanation of deviance?
A. anomie theory
B. labeling theory
C. cultural transmission
D. differential association

B. victimless

Dave, the mayor of Arlington, has a wild weekend. He spends a night with a prostitute, gambles illegally, drinks excessively, and uses drugs. Some would suggest he has committed various ______ crimes.
A. organized
B. victimless
C. white-collar
D. corporate

True

Reference group is a term used by sociologists when speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior. True or False?

False

The concentration of wealth in the U.S. has devreased substantially in the last two decades. True or False?

C. Sally and Veronica, a lesbian couple, argue about a new piece of gay-rights legislation.

Which of the following is an example of social interaction?
A. Felipe watches television and does needlepoint
B. Mary wallpapers her bedroom walls
C. Sally and Veronica, a lesbian couple, argue about a new piece of gay-rights legislation.
D. all of these

A. the borderlands

The area of common culture between Mexico and the U.S. is referred to as
A. the borderlands
B. TexMex
C. maquiladoras.
D. peso.

C. life chances

Max Weber referred to people's opportunities to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable experiences as
A. power
B. wealth
C. life chances
D. status

True

According to Karl Marx, a worker with class consciousness may feel that he or she is being treated fairly by the bourgeoisie, and a worker with false consciousness realizes that all workers are being exploited by the bourgeoisie and have a common stake in revolution. True or False?

B. role conflict

Elaine is a clinical sociologist who practices marriage and family therapy. She is also a college professor. One of her current students asks her if she can make an appointment for a therapy session. Elaine tells the student that she will refer her to a colleague because she feels that holding therapy sessions with a student might create
A. role strain
B. role conflict
C. role exit
D. status displacement

D. resocialization

A woman who was socialized from infancy to become a wife and mother settles comfortably into being a moneymaker in her twenties and early thirties. However, her husband dies suddenly, and she finds that she must enter the paid labor force in order to support herself and her two children. This woman will most likely have to undergo a process of
A. anticipatory socialization
B. socialization
C. reverse socialization
D. resocialization

True

Varnas refers to the major castes in India. True or False?

C. Mexico was home to 2010's wealthiest person in the world

Which of the following is surprising about Mexico, according to Forbes magazine?
A. Los Angeles is poorer than Mexico City
B. Guadalajara is rich in diamonds and gold
C. Mexico was home to 2010s wealthiest person in the world
D. Mexico has the narrowest gap between rich and poor of any nation in the world.

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