According to Durkheim which form of solidarity exists when people are interdependent, share less obvious common values, have diverse and conflicting interests, and a more complex division of labor?
The percentages of nonwhites and non-males within the field of sociology over the last 50 years has seen what change?
A coherent model of how society works and how individuals are socialized into their roles within it is called?
What according to Robert Merton, can the functions of any institution or interactions be?
Either manifest or latent
Which is true about the common cannon of sociology according to your text?
It consists primarily of white men.
Which theory suggests that the dynamics of society, both of social order and social resistance, were the result of conflict among different groups?
Marx believes that the best economic system is one that has collective ownership of all property. Which economic system best fits what Marx supports?
Globalization focuses on which level analysis when examining institutional processes?
According to Durkheim, which form of solidarity shares a common culture and sense of morality?
Which of the following is one of the stages that Comte believed each society passes through?
Which best describes symbolic interactionism?
An individual's interactions with his or her environment help a person develop a sense of "self".
Which of the two themes came together in the work of Thomas Jefferson?
Individual liberty and that society enhanced freedom
What central insight was illustrated in Emile Durkheim's study of suicide?
Society is held together by "solidarity."
Which definition does the text use to describe modernism?
The belief in evoluntary progress, through the application of science
Sociology uses which of the following as part of its scientific approach to interpret social behavior?
What was an outcome of the "Enlightenment"?
Use of reason to understand the relationship of the individual and society.
Culture that is associated with more affluent and largely White groups may be referred to as what form of culture?
What are the processes by which members of a culture engage in a routine behavior to express their sense of belonging to the culture known as?
Culture that consists of things people make and the things people use to make them is known as?
Which best describes language?
Language is an organized set of symbols by which people are able
to think and communicate with others.
What best describes the term cultural lag?
When societies experience the gap between technology and material culture and its
social beliefs and institutions.
What is a group of people within a culture who share some distinguishing characteristic, belief, value, or attribute that sets them apart from the dominant culture called?
Eileen bases her beliefs about members of other groups on stereotypes. Sociologically, what is this belief that Eillen has about other groups called?
According to the text, what was NOT an American value identified by sociologist Robin Williams Jr.?
Which best describes values?
Ethical foundations of a culture, ideas about right and wrong, good and bad.
Charles is an American who moved to China. Charles felt disorientation and uncertainty of what was culturally expected when he moved. What did Charles experience?
A short-lived, highly popular, and widespread behavior, style, or mode of thought is known as what concept?
Which best describes the culture?
Culture refers to the sets of values and ideals that we understand to define
morality, good and evil, appropriate and inappropriate.
Which term refers to the spreading of new ideas through a society, independent of a population movement?
The vast differences that can exist between the world's many cultures are representative of what concept?
When a country's culture is deliberately imposed on another country this is called?
What makes a counterculture different than a subculture?
It identifies itself with being different and in oppostion to the dominant culture.
Which theorist explained that people create a "self" through our interactions with others?
George Herbet Mead
What is the most accurate description of a social structure?
A complex framework, or structure, composed of both patterned social interactions
and institutions that together both organize social life and provide the context for
Which theorist is credited with first describing the essential characteristics of bureaucracies?
A status, either ascribed or achieved, that overshadows all others, dominating our lives and controlling our position in society is reffered to as what type of status?
Stacey's status of being white was assigned to her at birth by society and she can do little to change being racially identified as white. What does Stacey's status demonstrate?
What does the term 'molecular cement" that links individuals in groups by Robert Nisbet refer to?
Five basic patterns of social interactions
When a person attempts to give the best performance possible, he/she is doing what type of work according to Goffman?
What best describes instrumental reason for secondary groups to come together?
Working together to meet common goals.
What is most accurate about the Internet and networks?
Message boards and chat rooms allow people more creativity in playing roles than
may exist in live interaction.
John tells vulgar jokes with his buddies all the time and he often makes up stories about his ex life that he believes are funny. However, when John is with his mother he is the exact opposite, often critical of others who make such jokes or tell such stories around his mother. What is John's behavior an example of?
When you are aware of the subtle differences among the individual members of your group this is called?
What concept is defined as an organized collection of individuals and institutions, bounded by space in a coherent territory, subject to the same political authority, and organized through a shared set of cultural expectations and values?
When an aggregate of individuals who happen to be together but experience themselves as seperate persons is present what is this described as being?
What form of observation does a researcher perform if she is not involved in any way in the event being observed?
What does a Likert scale measure?
Levels of agreement or disagreement with a set of offered statements on a
What are variables that influence the outcome of an experiment but are not actually of interest to the researcher called?
Christopher is planning his experiment. He will introduce change into group A and group B will not experience any change. Which group is the control group in Christopher's experiment?
What is known as the ability to generate testable hypothesis from data and to "predict" the outcomes of some phenomenon or event?
Why is coming up with a good survey question hard?
The wording of the question or location of it within the survey can change the
A controlled form of observation with an independent and dependent variable is known as what?
What could content analysis include in its intensive reading?
Pieces of conversation
Which best describes a hypothesis?
Predicts a relationship between two variables, independent and dependent.
What best describes a survey?
A set of questions administered to participants which collects information about
attitudes or behavoirs.
What is the field method where researchers live and work with the group they're studying from the group's point of view and identify themselves as a researcher?
When a sample is divided into different groups before being constructed, and the researcher makes sure that she gets an adequate number of members of each group, this sample is called?
When one is doing deductive reasoning what does data refer to?
Logically proceeding from one demonstrable fact to the next and deducing results.
When sociologist want to conduct research among the people they want to study they are doing what type of research?
Going into the field
When researcher has "gone native" what has occurred?
The researcher has uncritically embraced the groups' way of seeing things.
Which of the following is a type of research that a sociologist might engaged in?
Whose studies on "Obedience to Authority" had participants use "electric shocks" on "learners" in order to test how the participants would follow orders?
Regarding menonggococcal infection,
college freshmen living in dormitories have a higher risk of contracting meningtis than other college students
What is true about depression?
It is a disease involving the chemistry of the brain.
Approximately 15% of college students have symptoms
The Yerkes-Dodson Law states that
when students experience moderate stress levels they learn the most.
Based on the discussion in class, as well as the information in the stress book, which of the following infections has the highest occurence among (incoming) freshmen?
Which of the following is true?
stress is subjective
stress is caused by our response to the environment
E + P = R
approximately 22,000 AIDS cases have been reported in individuals between the ages of 20-24.
many of individuals with AIDS in the 25-35 age group actually aquired the HIV infection in their late teens and early twenties.
Based on how stress is defined in the book, it is a discrepancy between which of the following?
Demands and resources
Generally speaking, research on eating and dietary habits of college students indicate that they:
none of the above
Of all the main stressors discussed in the book, which is the most dominant stressor that affects (influences) all the other stressors?
The following statement(s) is (are) correct:
Approximately 1.3% of college women report the occurrence of an unintended pregnancy as a cause of an academic problem
There is a higher rate of drinking in the college population versus peers of the same group who do not attend college.
According to a U.S Department of Education Report
there is an estimated 428,280 students with disabilities enrolled at 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions during the periods of 1996 through 1998.
as a category "learning disabilities" is the most frequent disability.
The following statement(s) is(are) correct:
Stressful events and experiences can trigger episodes of depression
More than 18 million American adults have depression.
As discussed in the book, stress has reached epidemic proportions because...
Time magazine ran a cover story on stress.
Three of the best selling drugs are Tagamet, Indernal, and Valium.
Regarding facts associated with students' persistence after 3 years of college enrollment, it was reported that as of 1998
roughly 2/3 of students who had first enrolled in a 4-year college in 1995-1996 were still enrolled at the same college.
1/5 of students had transfered to another institution.
13% had left and not returned.
Which of the following was reported as the strongest predictor of obtaining a bachelor's degree in college?
(strong) high school curriculum
Which animal in the book is used as a "symbolic" representation of an "unbridled" stressor, especially when it is untamed and ferocious? Also, what is this animal's Latin name?
Tiger; Panthera tigris
The first national survey to measure health-risk behaviors among college students across six important behavioral areas is called:
The National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS)
Which of the following is incorrect?
Close dormitory living quaters do not contribute to infectious diseases
associated with college students.
Regarding panic disorders and panic attacks, which of the following is/are true?
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder.
Panic attacks may be seen as a kind of "systems overload."
As discussed and illustrated in the book, in which of the three stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) is the fight-or-flight response located?
Based on the relationships presented in the tables that were discussed in class, it was seen that
low levels of academic stressors were associated with high self-control means and
high social support means.
high levels of personality stressors were asscoiated with high depression mean
scores and low health protective behavior mean score.
Being a perfectionist, having unrealistic expectations and engaging in negative self-talk fall under which of the following categories in the book?
As discussed in the book, the main network systems activated by the brain via
the ____ are the autonomic (or involuntary nervous system) and the endocrine
Although stress has been viewed in the past as a casual factor for ulcers,
recent evidence suggests that ulcers may also be caused by...
a bacterium called Helicobacter Pylori
As mentioned in the book, there are approximately 3-6 million teenagers and young adults struggling with _____
Time management falls under which of the following main areas of academic stressors?
As discussed in class, the authors Holmes and Rahe were associated with
life change events research
publication of Social Radjustment Rating Scale in 1967
As discussed in class, post-traumatic stress and critical incident stress are associated with
As discussed in the book, what are the main areas of potential academic stressors?
career plans and goals
As indicated in the book, published studies indicate that long term use of marijuana can cause:
As discussed in the book (see Chapter 14), while the ________ system is responsible for increasing energy the _____ system is responsible for conserving energy.
Which two habits tend to go hand-in-hand, and often contribute to high stress levels?
Inadequate sleeping and poor eating
When an individual perceives an event (stressor) as stressful,
the _____________ controls the activation of the endocrine system and
the (autonomic) nervous system.
As discussed in the book, the nervous system is divided into:
Central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Which type of stress deals more with tragedies, serious injuries, deaths and oftentimes involves emergency service workers, first responders (e.g ambulance crew, police officers)?
critical incident stress
Which of the following is(are) correct when speaking about a 'To do List" as discussed in the book?
activities that need immediate action
According to the book, time management is really a misnomer and it should really be called
In the book tips for reducing text anxiety include which of the following:
A positive attiude & Relaxation techniques
Based on the information presented in the book, which stress management strategy is similar to personality stressors in terms of its level of importance?
Caffeine is perhaps one of the most serious of the _________ and it is recommended that the drinking of coffee be stopped, if possible, or severely curtailed.
As discussed in the book, "talking things out" can result in
Allowing you to find a solution
Allowing you to get rid of "pent-up" feelings
In the new and revised USDA Food Pyramid, the color guide has recommendations that include:
Of all the skills mentioned in the book, which one is the most important in terms of its relative "umbrella' position and function compared with others?
Basically, _________________ is a technique used to change how we look at things in order that we may feel better about them.
In order to manage stress more effectively, change has to occur in students'
Interactions with others
Based on the 101 Stress management Tips For College Students in the Appendix of the book, which was not one of the factors listed?
Acquire a meal plan and stick with it
Which of the following was not mentioned as involving misconceptions about relaxation?
Playing with pets
Please complete the statement: " _________ are simple statements that you say to yourself over and over again...through constant repetition, your subconscious mind picks up the message and you start taking action to create change."
As discussed in the book, for students to develop effective study habits they must engage in
activities that will establish their values, priorities and goals to be accomplished
Which stress management strategy is referred to in the book as the most important strategy given that it subsumes all the other strategies?
According to the book, students' PPOA must incorporate information in the 3-Step Approach to Stress Management called the __________ Approach.
Which of the following was not mentioned in the book as being associated with changes in your life?
Which of the following was not one of the tips listed in the book to improve test taking?
None of the above
What best describes secondary socialization?
It occurs throughout life, each time we change social roles and abandon old behavior patterns and develop new patterns.
What is it known as when a person must learn a new set of values, behaviors, and attitudes that are different from those previously held?
Lenore is teaching her three-year old daughter about colors. What is this an example of?
What do studies of isolated children reveal?
Some will recover, with effort and specialized care, but others will suffer permanent damage
Which theorist developed a three-stage theory of socialization that included imitation, play, and games?
George Herbert Mead
Garrett is three years old and loves to pretend to be Spiderman. He pretends to do all the things that he believes Spiderman might do. What stage of development, according to Mead, is Garrett doing?
What best describes primary socialization?
Occurs during childhood, gives us basic behavioral patterns, but allows for adaptation and change later on.
In Piaget's cognitive stages of development what is the sensorimotor stage characterized by?
Can understand only what they see, hear, or touch
The idea of "faking until you make it" where a person begins to act out a role even before he or she has it could be understood as a what form of socialization?
What is it known as when a person can "internalize" the expectations of more and more people, until eventually they take on their group as a whole?
The generalized other
What does morality mean in the preconventional stage of Kohlberg's theory?
Avoiding punishment and gaining rewards
Lawrence Kohlberg built on Jean Piaget theory to argue what about development?
Moral development is in three stages.
Philip Zimbardo proposed which theory to explain how social controls can systematically weaken, and minor acts of deviance can spiral into severe crime and social decay?
Broken windows theory
Which concept best defines when a group of formerly labeled as deviant attempts to redefine their acts, attributes, or identities as normal?
What does opportunity theory hold?
That those who have many opportunities will be more likely to commit crimes than those who have few opportunities.
Which of the following best describes differential association theory?
Deviance is a matter of rewards and punishment.
When a person repeatedly breaks a norm and people start making a big deal of it, this is an example of what concept?
Which theory argues that people are rational and decide whether or not to engage in an act by weighing potential outcomes?
Which sociologist used the term stigma to mean an attribute that changed you "from a whole and usual person to a tainted and discounted one"?
How is crime defined?
Any act that violates a formal normative code that has been enacted by a legally constituted body.
In strain theory what causes the strain?
When a society promotes certain goals but provides unequal means of acquiring them.
Which is most accurate white-collar crimes?
They are illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf.
Lisa recieved an email informing her that her bank account was overdrawn, and she was told to click on the weblink in her email and enter her account information. Lisa has been the target of what type of cybercrime?
When lawmakers interpret that a deviant act warrants formal sanctions, the act itself becomes known as what concept?
What social norms have strong moral significance, are viewed as essential to the proper functioning of the group, and are often made into laws?
When a person simply breaks a social rule or refuses to follow the behavior, this is known as?
Which of the following best describes taboos?
They are prohibitions viewed as essential to the well-being of humanity and are a subset of mores.
What is the threat society poses through the justice system to cause people to do in relation to crime?
Be deterred from future crime.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the modernization theory?
A nation's poverty is largerly due to the cultural failings of developed industrialized nations.
Steve belives that people who work hard will rise to the top and those who don't will fall to the bottom. Steve's belief is a representative of what system?
Which of the following reasons is a cause in the decline of feudalism?
Society began to shift from the rural manor to the urban center.
How many socioeconomic classes do today's sociologist argue may exist in the United States?
At least six or more, usually divided on the basis of household income.
The process of exploitation that most extensively occurred between 1500 and 1900, when England, Spain, France, and other European nations attempted to exercise control over the entire world, is known as?
Which of the following would NOT apply to social stratification?
It is a form of equality that allows for the society to properly function
What is the definition of global inequality?
It is systematic differences in wealth and power among countries.
Allison owns a factory where others work for her. The factory Allison owns is demonstrative of what Marxian concept?
The mode of production
John grew up in a working-class family, but as a college student he went to Yale and earned his MBA. John is now a CEO of a major corporation and spends his summers in the Hamptons. John and his father are no longer part of the same social class, as his father is still working class. What form of social mobility is demonstrated by the difference between John and his father's social class?
Which of the following is NOT true about the poor in America?
The elderly are more likely to be poor than any other group of Americans.
John is able to set his own hours, does not have to punch a time clock, and has the ability to decide what his work schedule will be like. John has an ability to have this amount of control over his working situation. Which of the following concept best describes John's ability?
In societies where social mobility is possible which of the following is most accurate?
Most people remain at the same social location throughout their lives.
Which of the following is NOT simply identified as an ascribed status but also as an achieved status?
Which best describes the culture of poverty?
People are socialized from one generation to the next into believing they have nothing to strive for.
Which of the following is NOT part of social mobility in the Unites States?
Social mobility is not possible, instead one is born into a particular class and will remain there no matter what they do.
Chris was born in Harlem into a working-class family; Chris recently received tenure at Harvard University. Chris's ability to change social locations in the United States is an example of what concept?
Which definition best decribes social stratification?
It is the system of structured social inequality and the structure of mobility in a society.
Which of the following was included in the feudal system?
Some "free men"
What do state-centered theories argue about government policies?
Government policies do not interfere with economic development but play a key role in bringing it about.
Which of the following best describes core countries?
These are the most advanced industrial countries, and they take the lion's share of profits in the world economic system.
Social mobility that occurs when a person who is working class experiences movement into the upper class is known as?
How is integration defined?
The physical intermingling of the races organized as a concerted legal and social effort to bring equal access and racial equality through racial mixing in institutions and communities.
To sociologists, the problem with conceptualizing race as a biological distinction do NOT include which of the following?
Race has been a constant that has continually been based on biological and physical characteristics that have allowed for the divide between social groups to be maintained.
The attempt to outlaw interracial relationships in the United States was based on what belief?
That the mixing of the races was considered deviant.
The Know-nothing Party was formed in 1849 to promote anti-Catholic and anti-immigration legislation. The Know- Nothing Party illustrates what type of group?
Stacey's family is of Polish descent; however, Stacey was forbidden to speak Polish in the home and only English and she was taught to embrace American cultural traditions over Polish ones. Stacey would be known more as American than Polish and her lack of a Polish identity illustrates what concept?
What best describes a "self fulfilling prophecy"?
We see what we want to see, what fulfills our expectations and confirms stereotypes.
Which of the following does not describe the process of assimilation?
Maintaining long-held cultural traditions at the expense of social acceptance.
Which sociologist divided prejudice and discrimination into four categories: all-weather bigots, fair weather bigots, fair-weather liberals, all-weather liberals?
Which of the following is most accurate in relation to a majority group?
A group whose members experience privilege and access to power because of their group membership.
What does NOT illustrate an example of a scapegoat?
A powerful CEO who has a great deal of social support with little attention paid to his critics.
Which of the following is most accurate about institutional discrimination?
It is particularly subtle and is highly pervasive.
Which of the following is NOT an example of discrimination?
A female clerk waiting on a black couple who was first in the store, instead of waiting on a Hispanic couple who entered the store second.
Which of the following reasons would one cite to indicate that Native Americans are worse off in terms of social support and acceptance in the United States than other minorities?
Higher poverty rate for Native Americans than any other ethnic group
Higher rate of alcoholism for Native Americans than white and Hispanics, in spite of having a lower percentage of "current drinkers"
Lower life expectancy for Native Americans than the nation as a whole
Lower national average of high school graduation and college attendance rates for Native Americans
When a person makes a generalization about an entire group that is oversimplified and exaggerated, he/she has relied upon what to form this generalization?
For a racial ethnic group to be classified as a minority which of the following characteristics must be present?
Identifiablity, in tat minority group members share (or are assumed to share) physical or cultural traits that distinguish them from the dominant group.
Differential power, meaning there must be significant differences in access to economic, social, and political resources.
Solidarity and group awareness in that there is membership to a definable category of people present.
Ascribed status because membership to the group is something that you are born with and it is not voluntary.
Segregation is best expressed by which of the following?
Having separate drinking fountains and washrooms that are labeled ''whites only'' or "blacks only".
Which of the following statements is most accurate in relationship to race?
Race depends on an assumption of biological distinction.
Which of these is cited as a possible negative outcome from Affirmative Action?
Minority men and women sometimes receive the role of a token and are not respected regardless of their ability to do the job.
What was the system in South Africa where there was mandated segregation present known as?
If a person identifies as an Italian-American they have identified themselves in terms of what concept?
What Supreme Court case concluded that "separate but equal" was never actually equal?
Brown v. Board of Education, Topia Kansas
What are the distinctive values, pursuits, and pastimes that are culturally prescribed for each age cohort referred to as?
What is hooking up?
It is sexual encounter that may or may not include sexual intercourse, usually occurring on only one occasion between two people who are strangers or brief acquaintances.
What is homophobia?
A socially approved dislike of gay men and lesbians, based on the presumption they are inferior to straight people.
Beth has been diagnosed with chronic and extreme starvation dieting and and obsessive exercise; what type of eating disorder does Beth have?
What is an objection the text notes that religious persons might have to certain types of birth control?
Some birth control methods may prevent implantation of human embryo, essentially ending the human life.
When Bob separated from his wife, bought a new convertible, and began to go out clubbing, all his friends thought he was experiencing what concept?
What is true about height and weight of standard Americans?
Over time, Miss America has remained the same height but has gotten far thinner.
When a man experiences a belief that he is too small and insufficiently muscular it is called?
What best describes transgenderism?
An umbrella term that describes a variety of people, behaviors, and groups whose identities depart from normative gender ideals of masculinity or femininity.
Steve has no sexual desire for anyone, regardless of gender. What is Steve's sexual identity known as?
What best describes the term sexuality?
Identities we construct that are often based on our sexual conduct.
Cooper believes that he should look like a Greek god with large muscles, thick black hair, and a perfect chin. What phrase best fits Cooper's belief, according to Harrison Pope?
Kim is taking care of her elderly mother and her three young children. What is Kim's caregiving an example of?
When Alex wanted to undergo sex reassignment surgery he first had to be diagnosed by a medical professional for what?
How is life expectancy defined?
The average number of years that a person in a certain year could expect to live.
When a person has an identity that is oriented around attraction to both men and women, this is called?
What is true about the typical gay or lesbian couple as recent research demonstrates?
They're well educated
The newly-married Joneses have called a family meeting; they are discussing with their children from their previous marriages the best way to organize their new family. What type of family do the Joneses now have?
Which of the following has NOT increased with regard to marriage in the United States?
What is a kinship system?
Cultural form that locates individuals in the culture by reference to their families.
What has family been most commonly defined as?
Basic unit in society traditionally consisting of two parents rearing their children and any various social units that may differ but are regarded as equivalent.
Which Supreme Court case allowed for interracial marriage in the United States to be legally changed?
Loving v. State of Virginia
What does cohabitation refer to?
Unmarried persons in a romantic relationship living together in the same residence.
What might be a reason behind the increases in nonmarital choices in the United States?
People are getting higher levels of education and the higher level of education the later people get married.
There is a wider acceptance of "permarital" sex.
Changes in the courtship and dating practices.
Which is most accurate about gender and parenting?
More women stay at home, out of paid workforce, than men.
What best describes the extended family?
Where two or three generations live under the same roof or on the same compound.