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According to Durkheim which form of solidarity exists when people are interdependent, share less obvious common values, have diverse and conflicting interests, and a more complex division of labor?

Organic

The percentages of nonwhites and non-males within the field of sociology over the last 50 years has seen what change?

An increase

A coherent model of how society works and how individuals are socialized into their roles within it is called?

A paradigm

What according to Robert Merton, can the functions of any institution or interactions be?

Either manifest or latent

Who coined the term sociology?

Auguste Comte

Which sociologists wrote of the "sociological imagination"?

C. Wright Mills

Which is true about the common cannon of sociology according to your text?

It consists primarily of white men.

Which theory suggests that the dynamics of society, both of social order and social resistance, were the result of conflict among different groups?

Conflict theory

Marx believes that the best economic system is one that has collective ownership of all property. Which economic system best fits what Marx supports?

Communism

Globalization focuses on which level analysis when examining institutional processes?

Macrolevel Analysis

According to Durkheim, which form of solidarity shares a common culture and sense of morality?

Mechanical

Which of the following is one of the stages that Comte believed each society passes through?

Metaphysical

Which best describes symbolic interactionism?

An individual's interactions with his or her environment help a person develop a sense of "self".

Which of the two themes came together in the work of Thomas Jefferson?

Individual liberty and that society enhanced freedom

What central insight was illustrated in Emile Durkheim's study of suicide?

Society is held together by "solidarity."

Which definition does the text use to describe modernism?

The belief in evoluntary progress, through the application of science

Weak and informal norms are called?

Folkways

Which sociological theorist was a central figure of structural-functional analysis?

Talcott Parsons

Sociology is best described as

The study of human behavior in society

Sociology uses which of the following as part of its scientific approach to interpret social behavior?

Systematic observations

What was an outcome of the "Enlightenment"?

Use of reason to understand the relationship of the individual and society.

Which is a central component of Karl Marx's theoretical framework?

Capitalism

George Ritzer coined the term for the increasing homogenity around the world?

McDonaldization

Which term in Marx's theory would be applied to the working class?

Proletariat

Which is not true about mores?

They are weak norms that are informally enforced.

Culture that is associated with more affluent and largely White groups may be referred to as what form of culture?

High

Which is NOT an example of a fad?

The Pledge of Allegiance

What are the processes by which members of a culture engage in a routine behavior to express their sense of belonging to the culture known as?

Rituals

Culture that consists of things people make and the things people use to make them is known as?

Material

Which best describes language?

Language is an organized set of symbols by which people are able
to think and communicate with others.

What best describes the term cultural lag?

When societies experience the gap between technology and material culture and its
social beliefs and institutions.

What is a group of people within a culture who share some distinguishing characteristic, belief, value, or attribute that sets them apart from the dominant culture called?

Subculture

What theorist argued that different groups possess "cultural capital"?

Pierre Bourdieu

Which of the following is an example of nonmaterial culture?

Democracy

Eileen bases her beliefs about members of other groups on stereotypes. Sociologically, what is this belief that Eillen has about other groups called?

Prejudice

According to the text, what was NOT an American value identified by sociologist Robin Williams Jr.?

Altruism

Enthnocentrism is based in what belief?

A belief that one's culture is superior to others.

Which of the following is an example of a counterculture?

White Supremacist Survivalists

Which best describes values?

Ethical foundations of a culture, ideas about right and wrong, good and bad.

Popular culture is often associated with what groups?

Middle and working class

Charles is an American who moved to China. Charles felt disorientation and uncertainty of what was culturally expected when he moved. What did Charles experience?

Cultural shock

A short-lived, highly popular, and widespread behavior, style, or mode of thought is known as what concept?

Fad

Which best describes the culture?

Culture refers to the sets of values and ideals that we understand to define
morality, good and evil, appropriate and inappropriate.

Which hypothesis proposes that language shapes our perceptions?

Sapir-Whorf

Which term refers to the spreading of new ideas through a society, independent of a population movement?

Cultural Diffusion

The vast differences that can exist between the world's many cultures are representative of what concept?

Cultural diversity

When a country's culture is deliberately imposed on another country this is called?

Cultural Imperialism

All of the following are true about symbols EXCEPT?

Symbols do not represent feelings or ideas.

What makes a counterculture different than a subculture?

It identifies itself with being different and in oppostion to the dominant culture.

Which theorist explained that people create a "self" through our interactions with others?

George Herbet Mead

What is NOT an example of a coercive organization?

McDonald's

What is the most accurate description of a social structure?

A complex framework, or structure, composed of both patterned social interactions
and institutions that together both organize social life and provide the context for
individual action.

What is different about a group from a crowd?

A group has cohesion.

Behaviors that are oriented toward others are called?

Social interactions

Which theorist is credited with first describing the essential characteristics of bureaucracies?

Max Weber

A status, either ascribed or achieved, that overshadows all others, dominating our lives and controlling our position in society is reffered to as what type of status?

Master

Stacey's status of being white was assigned to her at birth by society and she can do little to change being racially identified as white. What does Stacey's status demonstrate?

Ascribed status

What does the term 'molecular cement" that links individuals in groups by Robert Nisbet refer to?

Five basic patterns of social interactions

When a person attempts to give the best performance possible, he/she is doing what type of work according to Goffman?

Face

What is the final form of social interaction that Robert Nisbet discusses as a category?

Coercion

Sets of behaviors that are expected of a person who occupies a status are called?

Roles

In Democracy of America, what did Alexis de Tocqueville call America?

"A nation of joiners"

What best describes instrumental reason for secondary groups to come together?

Working together to meet common goals.

What is most accurate about the Internet and networks?

Message boards and chat rooms allow people more creativity in playing roles than
may exist in live interaction.

Erving Goffman called his theory what?

Dramaturgy

Talking is an example of what type of communication?

Verbal communication

What is an achieved status best defined as?

A voluntary status one attains.

What best describes role performance?

The particular emphasis or interpretation we give a role.

John tells vulgar jokes with his buddies all the time and he often makes up stories about his ex life that he believes are funny. However, when John is with his mother he is the exact opposite, often critical of others who make such jokes or tell such stories around his mother. What is John's behavior an example of?

Impression management

What is NOT one of the potential problems with bureaucracy?

Underspecialized

When you are aware of the subtle differences among the individual members of your group this is called?

In-group heterogeneity

What concept is defined as an organized collection of individuals and institutions, bounded by space in a coherent territory, subject to the same political authority, and organized through a shared set of cultural expectations and values?

Society

Who coined the term looking-glass self?

Charles Horton Cooley

When an aggregate of individuals who happen to be together but experience themselves as seperate persons is present what is this described as being?

Crowd

What form of observation does a researcher perform if she is not involved in any way in the event being observed?

Detached

What term is used for a subset of the population a researcher wants to study?

Sample

What is true about interview studies?

They are not easily generalizable because of the sample size.

What does a Likert scale measure?

Levels of agreement or disagreement with a set of offered statements on a
questionnaire.

What are variables that influence the outcome of an experiment but are not actually of interest to the researcher called?

Extraneous

Christopher is planning his experiment. He will introduce change into group A and group B will not experience any change. Which group is the control group in Christopher's experiment?

Group B

What is known as the ability to generate testable hypothesis from data and to "predict" the outcomes of some phenomenon or event?

Predictability

Why is coming up with a good survey question hard?

The wording of the question or location of it within the survey can change the
survey results.

A controlled form of observation with an independent and dependent variable is known as what?

Experiment

What is a correlation?

A relationship between two phenomena.

What could content analysis include in its intensive reading?

Books
Magazines
Pieces of conversation
Newspaper articles

Which best describes a hypothesis?

Predicts a relationship between two variables, independent and dependent.

What best describes a survey?

A set of questions administered to participants which collects information about
attitudes or behavoirs.

What is the field method where researchers live and work with the group they're studying from the group's point of view and identify themselves as a researcher?

Ethnography

When a sample is divided into different groups before being constructed, and the researcher makes sure that she gets an adequate number of members of each group, this sample is called?

Stratified

When one is doing deductive reasoning what does data refer to?

Logically proceeding from one demonstrable fact to the next and deducing results.

When a researcher wants to begin researching he needs approval from what university group?

IRB

When a researcher colects data she must ensure teh data is which two things?

Valid; reliable

When sociologist want to conduct research among the people they want to study they are doing what type of research?

Going into the field

According to your text, what type of sample do most qualitative studies use?

Purposive sample

When researcher has "gone native" what has occurred?

The researcher has uncritically embraced the groups' way of seeing things.

Which of the following is a type of research that a sociologist might engaged in?

Content analysis
Surveys
Observation
Interviews

Whose studies on "Obedience to Authority" had participants use "electric shocks" on "learners" in order to test how the participants would follow orders?

Stanley Milgram

What term did Max Weber use to identify "intersubjective understanding"?

Verstehen

What is a sample taken by using an abstract or arbitrary method?

Random

Regarding menonggococcal infection,

college freshmen living in dormitories have a higher risk of contracting meningtis than other college students

What is true about depression?

It is a disease involving the chemistry of the brain.
Approximately 15% of college students have symptoms

The Yerkes-Dodson Law states that

when students experience moderate stress levels they learn the most.

Based on the discussion in class, as well as the information in the stress book, which of the following infections has the highest occurence among (incoming) freshmen?

meningococcal

Risk factors for HIV/AIDS include:

Oral sex
Sharing intravenous needles

Which of the following is true?

stress is subjective
stress is caused by our response to the environment
E + P = R

Regarding HIV/AIDS,

approximately 22,000 AIDS cases have been reported in individuals between the ages of 20-24.
many of individuals with AIDS in the 25-35 age group actually aquired the HIV infection in their late teens and early twenties.

Based on how stress is defined in the book, it is a discrepancy between which of the following?

Demands and resources

Generally speaking, research on eating and dietary habits of college students indicate that they:

none of the above

The "father" of stress is called?

Hans Selye

Of all the main stressors discussed in the book, which is the most dominant stressor that affects (influences) all the other stressors?

personality

The following statement(s) is (are) correct:

Approximately 1.3% of college women report the occurrence of an unintended pregnancy as a cause of an academic problem
There is a higher rate of drinking in the college population versus peers of the same group who do not attend college.

Sexual orientation is defined as what?

One's attractions/feelings toward women and/or men.

According to a U.S Department of Education Report

there is an estimated 428,280 students with disabilities enrolled at 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions during the periods of 1996 through 1998.
as a category "learning disabilities" is the most frequent disability.

The following statement(s) is(are) correct:

Stressful events and experiences can trigger episodes of depression
More than 18 million American adults have depression.

Which stressor deals more with interpersonal conditions or relationships?

psychosocial stressors

As discussed in the book, stress has reached epidemic proportions because...

Time magazine ran a cover story on stress.
Three of the best selling drugs are Tagamet, Indernal, and Valium.

Regarding facts associated with students' persistence after 3 years of college enrollment, it was reported that as of 1998

roughly 2/3 of students who had first enrolled in a 4-year college in 1995-1996 were still enrolled at the same college.
1/5 of students had transfered to another institution.
13% had left and not returned.

Which of the following was reported as the strongest predictor of obtaining a bachelor's degree in college?

(strong) high school curriculum

Which animal in the book is used as a "symbolic" representation of an "unbridled" stressor, especially when it is untamed and ferocious? Also, what is this animal's Latin name?

Tiger; Panthera tigris

The first national survey to measure health-risk behaviors among college students across six important behavioral areas is called:

The National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS)

Which of the following is incorrect?

Close dormitory living quaters do not contribute to infectious diseases
associated with college students.

Regarding panic disorders and panic attacks, which of the following is/are true?

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder.
Panic attacks may be seen as a kind of "systems overload."

Reactive hypoglycemia refers to

high consumption of sugars within a limited amount of time

As discussed and illustrated in the book, in which of the three stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) is the fight-or-flight response located?

Alarm Stage

Based on the relationships presented in the tables that were discussed in class, it was seen that

low levels of academic stressors were associated with high self-control means and

high social support means.
high levels of personality stressors were asscoiated with high depression mean
scores and low health protective behavior mean score.

Being a perfectionist, having unrealistic expectations and engaging in negative self-talk fall under which of the following categories in the book?

mind traps

Kobasa was associated with

hardiness
control
challenge

As discussed in the book, the main network systems activated by the brain via
the ____ are the autonomic (or involuntary nervous system) and the endocrine
system.

hypothalamus

The main areas of stress outcomes include

physical effects
behavior effects
cognitive effects

Although stress has been viewed in the past as a casual factor for ulcers,
recent evidence suggests that ulcers may also be caused by...

a bacterium called Helicobacter Pylori

As mentioned in the book, there are approximately 3-6 million teenagers and young adults struggling with _____

panic disorders

Frustration =

blocked aspirations + needs + desires

Time management falls under which of the following main areas of academic stressors?

personal skills

As discussed in class, the authors Holmes and Rahe were associated with

life change events research

publication of Social Radjustment Rating Scale in 1967

Which hormone literally provides the fuel of battle (i.e the fight-or-flight response)?

cortisol

As discussed in class, post-traumatic stress and critical incident stress are associated with

distress

As discussed in the book, what are the main areas of potential academic stressors?

personal skills
career plans and goals
scheduled classes

As indicated in the book, published studies indicate that long term use of marijuana can cause:

memory loss

attention problems

As discussed in the book (see Chapter 14), while the ________ system is responsible for increasing energy the _____ system is responsible for conserving energy.

sympathetic, parasympathetic

Which two habits tend to go hand-in-hand, and often contribute to high stress levels?

Inadequate sleeping and poor eating

Inadequate sleeping and poor eating

personality stressor

When an individual perceives an event (stressor) as stressful,
the _____________ controls the activation of the endocrine system and
the (autonomic) nervous system.

hypothalamus

As discussed in the book, the nervous system is divided into:

Central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Which type of stress deals more with tragedies, serious injuries, deaths and oftentimes involves emergency service workers, first responders (e.g ambulance crew, police officers)?

critical incident stress

Cannon is to the fight-or-flight response as ____ is to the General Adaptation Syndrome.

Selye

Setting realistic goals falls under which stress management strategy?

none of the above

Which of the following is(are) correct when speaking about a 'To do List" as discussed in the book?

activities that need immediate action

According to the book, time management is really a misnomer and it should really be called

Self-management

In the book tips for reducing text anxiety include which of the following:

A positive attiude & Relaxation techniques

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