9th Grade Social Studies Midterm Study Guide

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Social Studies

Ignatius of Loyola

leading Catholic reformer who does spiritual exercises like: meditation, prayer, and study

John Knox

he begins Calvinism to Scotland and his followers are Presbyterians

Thomas More

refuses to go against catholic church and is beheaded

Henry VIII

he need a male heir, but only has a daughter. He had six wives & three children. Which ending in religious turmoil & his death.

Gutenberg

he had the best invention of that time period; he improve the printing press

Calvin

formalized protest ideas, ideal government is theocracy- rule by religious leader

indulgences

a pardon releasing a person from penalty for a sin

printing press

it allows for quicker, cheap book production

Renaissance man

excels in many fields like the classical art, politics combat

Peace Augsburg

a 1555 agreement declaring that religious of each German state would be decided by its ruler

vernacular

the everyday language of people in a region or country

Renaissance

a period of European history, lasting from about 1300 to 1600 during which renewed interest in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning, & view of the world.

Reformation

a movement for religious reform

Shah Jahan

Jahangir's son and successor, marries Persian princess

Jahangir

Akbar's son allows wife Nar Jahan to control government

Safavids

Shi'ite Muslim dynasty from the 16th to 18th centuries

devshirme system

drafts boys from conquered lands

Taj Mahal

huge marble tomb Shah Jahan builds for his wife

Prince Henry

the son of Portugal's king, supports exploration

Vasco da Gamma

sails to India ands returns to Portugal with valuable cargo

Tokugawa leyasu

takes over completes unification of Japan

Zheng He

Chinese admiral who leads seven long voyages; distributes gifts to show China superiority

Hongwu

peasant's son who leads army that forces Mongols from China

Bartolomeu Dias

Portuguese explorer who wants to serve God and his king

caravel

it makes it possible to sail against the win

Treaty of Tordesillas

pope divide these lands between Spain and Portugal (Pope Alexander the 6th he divide them and is best known as the Line of Demarcation and it runs North to South. The land to the West is for Spain and the East Portugal.)

Korea

Manchus conquer, and its people graudully develop feelings of nationalism

haiku

three-line poetry that presents images

kabuki

theater-skits with elaborate costumes, music, and dance

daimyo

warrior-chieftains-are lords in new feudal system

spieces

European wanted it to put season in there food because there food was so bland

Cortez

Spanish adventurer-lands in Mexico

Pizarro

Spanish conquer leads force to Peru in 1532

Columbus

Genoese sea captain who reaches Americas

Vespucci

an Italain in the service of Portugal, also traveled along the eastern coast of South America

mercantilism

emphasizes wealth as source of power

Encomienda system

is capitalism which is based on private property profit

New Netherlands

Dutch claim to find land, which is now Albany and New York City

Peter the Great

becomes czar in 1696, begins to reforms Russia

Ivan the Terrible

become king of Russia

Maria Theresa

becomes empress of Austria faces years of war

Frederick II

become king of Prussia and religious tolerant is the law he relax on

restoration

return of monarchy under Charles II

Versailles Palace

is a center of arts during regin of Louis XIV the purpose of the arts is to glorify Louis

Edict of Nantes

a declaration of religious toleration

Glorious Revolution

bloodless overthrown of James in 1688

boyars

landowning nobles

War of Austrian

Frederick 2nd starts war to gain Silesia (iron ore, textiles, and food product). Maria Theresa resists Prussia power but loses Silesia in treaty. As result of the war, Prussia becomes a major power in Europe.

divine right

idea that monarchs represent God on earth

St. Petersburg

Peter wants a seaport that will make travel to west easier. He fights Sweden to win port on Baltic Sea. He begins building new capitol.

czar

seizes power and is get crowned

Thirty Year's War

conflict over religion, land, and power

Russian Economy

they had serf that were like slaves. When they sell their land the serf went with them.

Absolutism

when rulers are left with complete power

Frederick II

become king of Prussia and religious tolerant is the law he relax on

Copernicus

develops the heliocentric theory. They later prove him to be correct with mathematics

Bacon

urges scientists to experiment before drawing conclusion

Newton

develops theory of motion

Montesquieu

devoted himself to the study of political liberty

Locke

Philosopher who says government get power from the people

Diderot

created a large set of books to which many leadering scholar of Europe contributed articles and essay; they called it the Encyclopedia

Galileo

italian scientist; made key advances in astronomy

Declaration of Independence

document justifying colonial rebellion

Articles of Confederation

plan of government establishing the United States as a republic

Heliocentric

planet revolve around sun

Geocentric

moon, sun, plants revolve around earth

philosophers

French social critics in the mid- 1700s

Baroque style

grand, ornate design

neoclassical style

based on Greek/Roman themes

Treaty of Paris 1783

ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and United States

Scientific Revolution

new way of viewing natural world

Enlightenment

a moving stressing reason & thought

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