Sociology Test 3

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sociology

A. 5%

What percentage of all firefighters are women?
A. 5%
B. 14%
C. 25%
D. 34%

A. sons to share the limited amount of good land

Tibetan women may have more than one husband simultaneously, which allows for
A. sons to share the limited amount of good land
B. greater diversity in child reproduction
C. enforcement of the social norm prohibiting infidelity among wives
D. all of these

False

In the view of sociologists, the total number of people in a group determines the group's status as either a social minority or dominant group. True or False?

A. about one-third

How many of the recognized Indian tribes are involved in gambling ventures since Congress passed the Indian Gambling Regulatory Act in 1988?
A. about one-third
B. about one-half
C. about three-fourths
D. all tribes are involved

A. color-blind racism

The use of the principle of race neutrality to defend a racially unequal status quo is referred to as
A. color-blind racism
B. prejudice
C. discriminatory racism
D. none of these

D. all of these

Which of the following victim statuses may motivate a hate crime?
A. race/ethnicity
B. religion
C. sexual orientation
D. all of these

True

Suicide rates for Native- American teenagers are four times higher than the rate for other teenagers. True or False?

B Black Power

Which of the following terms refers to a political philosophy, promoted by many younger Blacks in the 1960s, which supported the creation of Black-controlled political and economic institutions?
A. Rainbow Coalition
B. Black Power
C. civil rights
D. manifest destiny

B. ethnic groups

Characteristics of national origin or distinctive cultural patterns are used primarily by a society to set apart
A. minority groups
B. ethnic groups
C. racial groups
D. manifest destiny

True

Many individuals, especially young adults, struggle against social pressure to choose a single identity, and instead openly embrace multiple heritages. True or False?

A. William I. Thomas

Which sociology observed that people respond no tonly to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them?
A. William I. Thomas
B. William Graham Sumner
C. Karl Marx
D. Robert Merton

B. conflict

Which perspective suggests that men may originally have become powerful in preindustrial times because their size, physical strength, and freedom from childbearing duties allowed them to dominate women physically, but in contemporary societies such considerations are not so important?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. global

D. all of these

A small body of scholarship suggests that traditional gener roles may be disadvantageous to men in that
A. in the 1980s, girls were more likely to go to college than boys
B. by 2006, women accounted for over 57% of college students nationwide.
C. in 2002, more women than men in the U.S. earned a doctoral degree
D. all of these

B. Chinese

In 1979, Vietnam expelled nearly 1 million ethnic ______ partly as a result of centuries of hostilities between the two countries.
A. Japanese
B. Chinese
C. Laotians
D. Koreans

A. Japanese American

In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed unprecedented legislation entitled the Civil Liberties Act, which required the federal government to apologize for the forced rrelocation of ___________ to "evacuation camps" during World War II.
A. Japanese American
B. Jewish Americans
C. African Americans
D. Vietnamese Americans

False

According to data from the Census Bureau, there has been a modest decrease in the number of childless married couples in the U.S. True or False?

A. the type of head scarf worn by Muslim women

The hijab is
A. the type of head scarf worn by Muslim women
B. a form of prayer among muslims
C. the type of pants worn by Muslim men
D. a traditional Muslim food.

B. over 80% of them had some type of polygamy

Anthropologist George Murdock sampled 565 societies and found that
A. over 90% of them were strictly monogamous.
B. over 80% of them had some type of polygamy
C. over 30% of them had no formal procedures for obtaining a divorce
D. over 75% of them had some type of polyandry.

True

Members of Congress have successfully blocked foreign aid to countries that might use the funds to encourage abortion. True or False

A. commitment to nonviolent civil disobedience

In resisting segregation, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, founded by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., was best know for
A. commitment to nonviolent civil disobedience
B. use of lawsuits in the courts
C. strategy of running candidates for public office
D. adherence to the philosophy of Black power.

C. exploitation theory

A sociologist argues that the capitalist ruling class is willing to tolerate high rates of illegal immigration because these immigrants serve as a cheap labor pool. This sociologist is most likely to draw upon
A. the contact hypothesis
B. the anoimie theory of deviance
C. exploitation theory
D. labeling theory

C. if one parent stays home with children, it makes no difference whether it is the mother or the father.

In a nationwide survey administered in 2002, 69% of respondents believed that
A. only mothers should stay home with children
B. only fathers should stay home with children
C. if one parent stays home with children, it makes no difference whether it is the mother or the father.
D. stay-at-home fathers are better for children than stay-at-home mothers

B. endogamy

Sarna, an Orthodox Jew, marries Nathan, a Reform Jew. Sarna is disowned by her parents because, as far as they are concerned, she has married outside their religion. She has violated the rule of
A. hypergamy
B. endogame
C. homogame
D. exogamy

True

Muslim coutries are exceedingly varied and complex and do not often fit the sterotypes created by the Western media. True or False?

C. have increased more than nine times in recent decades

Marriages between African Americans and Whites
A. are currently illegal in three states
B. are decreasing in number since reaching their peak in 1964
C. have increased more than nine times in recent decades
D. constitute less than 5% of all African-American marriages

B. the two people do not have equal status

A white male lawyer mentors a young female Latina lawyer. According to the contact hypothesis, this situation would be unlikely to reduce prejudice because
A. the Latina lawyer is too young to appreciate the mentoring
B. the two people do not have equal status
C. people with that much education are rarely prejudiced
D. sexism is operating as well as racism

True

According to sociologist Alice Rossi, our society lacks clear and helpful guidelines concerning successful parenthood. True or False?

D. all of these

Which of the following statements about family is correct?
A. only about one-third of families in the U.S. are nuclear in composition
B. The practice of polygamy steadily declined throughout the twentieth century
C. polyandrous cultures devalue the social worth of women
D. all of these

B. conflict

The existence of a model minority, such as Asian Americans, seems to reaffirm the notion that anyone can get ahead in the U.S. and implies that those minorities that dont succeed are somehow responsible for their failure. Which sociological perspective would view this as another instance of "blaming the victim"?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. dramaturgical

C. two unrelated adults who share a mutually caring relationship, reside together, and agree to be jointly responsible for their dependents, basic living expenses, and other common necessities

Which of the following is the way the textbook defines a domestic partnership?
A. two related persons who reside together, and agree to be jointly responsible for basic living expenses and other common necessitites
B. two unrelated persons who reside together, and agree to be jointly responsible for their dependents and other commone necessities
C. two unrelated adults who share a mutually caring relationship, reside together, and agree to be jointly responsible for their dependents, basic living expenses, and other common necessities
D. none of these

True

A conflict theorist argues that men's work is uniformly valued, while women's work (whether unpaid labor in the home or wage labor) is devalued. True or False?

C. nurse

Which occupation has a 90% rate for women holding that job in Great Britain?
A. computer programmer
B. cashier
C. nurse
D. traffic officer

D. all of these

Studies of picture books from the 1970s through the 1990s found that while males were portrayed as a variety of characters, females were mostly portrayed as
A. mothers
B. grandmothers
C. volunteers
D. all of these

D. all of these

The increasing divorce rate in the U.S. is attributed to
A. a general increase in family incomes and free legal aid
B. more liberal divorce laws
C. greater opportunities for women
D. all of these

True

There are at least five countries in Africa where 20% of the men are in polygamous marriages. True or False?

C. 2003

In what year did a U.S. state's Supreme Court rule that gay couples have the right to marry?
A. 1994
B. 1999
C. 2003
D. 2009

C. Parents and the bride always have a say in who she marries across cultures

Which of the following statements about the connection between love and marriage is not correct?
A. The connection between love and marriage is a cultural universal.
B. The connection between love and marriage is unknown in many cultures
C. Parents and the bride always have a say in who she marries across cultures
D. Most couples in arranged marriages are expected to find love after the legal union is formalized, if at all.

C. institutional discrimination

A gym buys uniforms for its employees. All of the uniforms are in a men's large, and the gym hires only people who will comfortably fit into the uniforms. As a result of this policy they gym doesn't hire any women. This would be an example of
A. instrumentality
B. expressiveness
C. institutional discrimination
D. pluralism

A. Florida

Which state explicitly forbids gay and lesbian couples to adopt children?
A. Florida
B. Michigan
C. Nevada
D. New York

A. Children raised by stepmothers are likely to have less health care, education, and money spent on their food than children raised by biological mothers.

Which of the following statements concerning stepfamilies is correct?
A. Children raised by stepmothers are likely to have less health care, education, and money spent on their food than children raised by biological mothers.
B. The well-being of children in stepfamilies is better, on average, than that of children in single parent households.
C. studies suggest most stepmothers are evil.
D. all of these

B. conflict

Which sociological perspective suggests that denial of the right to marry reinforces the second-class status of gays and lesbians?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. labeling theory

True

About 93% of people who work as word processors or typists are female. True or False?

C. discrimination

The process of denying opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons is known as
A. stereotyping
B. ethnocentrism
C. discrimination
D. segregation

True

More than 95% of all men and women in the U.S. marry at least once during their lifetimes. True or False?

C. Karl Marx

An approach to racism which emphasizes that racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs, thereby supplying the capitalist ruling class with a pool of cheap labor, is based on the work of which classical theorist?
A. Emile Durkheim
B. Talcott Parsons
C. Karl Marx
D. Auguste Comte

B. kinship system that favors the relatives of the father.

Patrilineal descent refers to a
A. kinship system in which both sides of a person's family are regarded as equally important.
B. kinship system that favors the relatives of the father
C. pattern of residence in which a married couple lives with the husband's parents
D. society in which men are expected to dominate family decision making.

C. bilateral

Which pattern of descent is most typical in the U.S.?
A. matrilineal
B. patrilineal
C. bilateral
D. bilineal

False

Polygyny is a social system in which women may have several husbands and in which women are more powerful than men. True or False?

C. jihad

Which of the following is the Arabic term that stands for one's inner struggle against the forces of ungodliness?
A. hijab
B. darud
C. jihad
D. fajr

C. deliberately and systematically killing an entire people or the members of a nation.

Genocide refers to the process of
A. combining a majority group and a minority group through intermarriage to form a new group.
B. expelling a group of people from a territory
C. deliberately and systematically killing an entire people or the members of a nation
D. forsaking a cultural identity in order to become part of a different culture

A. the prohibition of sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives.

The term "incest taboo" refers to
A. the prohibition of sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives
B. the prohibition of marriage between close relatives and neighbors
C. the requirement, in some cultures, of having one's sexual initiation occur within the safe confines of a family relationship
D. not having sex with neighbors or business associates

B. twice

A study in Los Angeles indicated that working couples are _____ as likely to cohabit as college students.
A. just
B. twice
C. not
D. none of these

B. instrumentality

Which of the Following terms is used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales to refer to an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one's family and other social institutions?
A. identification
B. instrumentality
C. expressiveness
D. gender indentity

True

The overwhelming majority of people begin with a definite sex and quickly receive societal messages about how to behave. True or False?

A. Ted and Tonya have been married to each other for 3 weeks.

Which of the following is the best example of monogamy?
A. Ted and Tonya have been married to each other for 3 weeks
B. Tori, Tito, and Tabitha have been living with each other for 14 years
C. Troy and his sister Tracy live together in an apartment
D. all of these

B. states that interracial contact between people of equal status will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon previous stereotypes

The contact hypothesis
A. is a Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the U.S. as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism.
B. states that interracial contact between people of equal status will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon previous stereotypes
C. was a theory that gave moral support to the continued existance of apartheid in South Africa
D. is a Parsonian theory that views ethnic subordination as a means of regulating social interactions between dominant and subordinate groups.

D. all of these

Which of the following factors has contributed to the amount of childlessness in the united states?
A. couples not believing that having children automatically follows from marriage
B. couples not considering reproduction to be the duty of all married couples
C. economic considerations
D. all of these

B. amalgamation

The belief that the U.S. was a "melting pot," which became very compelling in the first part of the twentieth century, suggested that the nation had an almost divine mission to produce
A. pluralism
B. amalgamation
C. segregation
D. assimilation

B attitude is to behavior

Prejudice is to discrimination as
A. norm is to value
B. attitude is to behavior
C. behavior is to attitude
D. good is to bad

A. Serbian forces driving more than one million Croats and Muslims from their homes

Expulsion was recently illustrated
A. Serbian forces driving more than one million Croats and Muslims from their homes
B. the killing of large numbers of Native Americans
C. marriages between Whites and Native Americans producing multiracial children
D. none of these

C. institutional discrimination

The civil rights movement of the 1960s had little impact on
A. school segregation
B. housing segregation
C. institutional discrimination
D. employment segregation

B. William Graham Sumner

Minority group members have a strong sense of group solidarity. Which sociologist noted that individuals make distinctions between members of their own group, or the in group, and everyone else, or the out-group?
A. Erving Goffman
B. William Graham Sumner
C. Manning Nash
D. Karl Marx

False

The contact hypothesis suggests that if an African-American boss and her Italian employee work together for several years in the same office, they will become more prejudiced toward one another. True or False?

B. women

According to Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, the expressive role is performed by
A. men
B. women
C. children
D. whichever adult has a career

A. homophobia

Fear of and prejudice against homosexuality is called
A. homophobia
B. gay fright
C. ebonics
D. heterophobia

C. Southeast Asians

Which racial or ethnic group has the highest rate of welfare dependency in the U.S.?
A. African Americans
B. Hispanics
C. Southeast Asians
D. Puerto Ricans

True

Since the change in U.S. immigration policy during the 1960s to encourage immigration of relatives of U.S. residents and people with desirable skills, the majority of immigrants originate from Asia and Latin America. True or False?

D. all of these

Hate crime laws are directed at crimes involving issues of
A. race/ethnicity
B. religion
C. sexual orientation
D. all of these

A. Issei

Which of the following terms refers to first-generation Japanese immigrants?
A. Issei
B. Sansei
C. Nisei
D. Cantonese

B. conflict

Which sociological perspective views race from the macro level and purports the economic structure as a central factor in the exploitation of minority groups?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. global

B. conflict

Which sociological perspective would be likely to suggest that polyandrous cultures devalue the social worth of women?
A. functionalist
B. conflict
C. interactionist
D. ethnocentric

C. polygyny

Which of the following terms refers to the marriage of a man to more tan one woman at the same time?
A. monogamy
B. polygamy
C. polygyny
D. polyandry

C. A woman has a career as a stockbroker, and she is also responsible for maintaining the apartment, doing the shopping, and cooking for herself and her husband/

Which of the following illustrates Arlie Hochschild's concept of the "second shift"?
A. a woman works from 9 to 5 as a nurse and then has a second job as a waitress at a local diner.
B. a man has a career as an accountant; when he gets home, he cleans the apartment and makes dinner for his wife, himself and their children
C. A woman has a career as a stockbroker, and she is also responsible for maintaining the apartment, doing the shopping, and cooking for herself and her husband/
D. all of these

B. Asian Americans

Cohabitation is least common among which racial or ethnic group in the U.S.?
A. Hispanics
B. Asian Americans
C. Native Americans
D. Whites

B. extended family

A married couple, their children, and other relatives- such as grandparents, aunts, uncles- living together in the same household constitutes an
A. nuclear family
B. extended family
C. matrilocal family
D. partilocal family

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