Psychology Final Review 2

75 terms by mflanagan3

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Aging cells may die without being replaced due to the shortening of

telomeres.

Which of the following is true of adolescence in contemporary industrialized societies, as compared with previous centuries?

It begins earlier in life and ends later in life.

The corpus callosum is a wide band of axon fibers that

transmits information between the cerebral hemispheres.

Men in their ________ are most likely to be sexually attracted to women who are several years older rather than several years younger than themselves.

teens

Adolescents are most likely to be influenced by their parents with respect to ________, and they are most likely to be influenced by their peers with respect to ________.

career choices; clothing preferences

The auditory hallucinations experienced by people with schizophrenia are most closely linked with the activation of areas in their

temporal lobes.

Infant visual preferences have been discovered by assessing infants'

habituation.

The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development.

formal operational

Shown the hollow face illusion, people will mistakenly perceive the inside of a mask as a protruding face. Yet, they will accurately reach into the inverted mask to flick off a buglike target stuck on the face. This best illustrates the capacity for

dual processing.

According to Piaget, imagining an action and mentally reversing it would be an example of a

mental operation.

The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of

visual perception.

At 1:00 A.M., Luis gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk. An EEG of his brain activity is most likely to indicate the presence of

delta waves.

Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?

parietal

Information travels through axons that are bundled into the cables that we call

nerves.

The standard deviation is the square root of the average squared deviation of scores from the

mean.

If research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a(n)

teratogen

The precision with which a sample average approximates a population average increases as

the standard deviation of the sample decreases.

Degeneration of the myelin sheath results in

multiple sclerosis.

When a statistical average is reported in the news, it is most important for readers to

consider whether it is distorted by a few extreme cases.

After an experiment, research participants are told its purpose and about any deception they may have experienced. This is called

debriefing

REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because

our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.

A psychologist working from the biological perspective would be most interested in conducting research on the relationship between

neurotransmitters and depression.

Beginning early in their prenatal developments, fraternal twins are

dizygotic.

Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers' reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ________ stage.

postconventional

People typically experience an increasing sense of confidence and self-esteem

from the mid-teen years to midlife.

Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life span.

social

During REM sleep, your skeletal muscles are relaxed because messages from the motor cortex are blocked by the

brainstem.

If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates

natural selection.

In which of the following disorders does the person repeatedly stop breathing while asleep?

sleep apnea

A developmental stage between adolescent dependence and responsible adulthood is called

emerging adulthood.

The motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes.

frontal

For several months following a sudden and unexpected divorce, Henry was excessively preoccupied with thoughts of his ex-wife. His reaction resulted from the disruption of

attachment

After living together for a year, Sylvia and Yefim have decided to marry. Research on premarital cohabitation most strongly suggests that

their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of ending in divorce.

Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of

selective attention.

To understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist carefully investigates the client's current life situation and his physical, social-cultural, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist used?

the case study

Older people are NOT increasingly susceptible to

common cold viruses.

Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your

cerebral cortex.

Distinguishing between very gradual and very abrupt developmental changes over the life span is most central to the major issue of

continuity and stages.

Approximately 95 percent of the cases represented by the normal curve fall within ________ standard deviation(s) from the mean.

2

The person most likely to suggest that the shape of a person's skull indicates the extent to which that individual is argumentative and aggressive would be a

phrenologist.

The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)

myelin sheath.

Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be

authoritative.

Displaying data in a scatterplot can help us see the extent to which two variables are

correlated.

In a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the ________ variable.

dependent

As the size of a representative sample increases, the ________ of that sample is most likely to decrease.

standard deviation

African infants have had a greater chance of survival if they have a living maternal grandmother who is without young children of her own. This fact has been used to support an evolutionary explanation of

menopause.

When working an occasional night shift, people often feel groggiest in the middle of the night but experience new energy around the time they normally would wake up. This best illustrates the impact of

the circadian rhythm.

To determine whether the strength of people's self-esteem is related to their income levels, researchers would most likely make use of

correlational research.

Brain plasticity may contribute to the effectiveness of

constraint-induced therapy.

The brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar to those of

NREM-1 sleep.

Avoiding physical punishment is to ________ morality as respecting the laws of society is to ________ morality.

preconventional; conventional

Which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation among a set of scores?

standard deviation

Your understanding and awareness of who you are is your

self-concept.

Which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boosts mental alertness?

the experiment

The resting potential of an axon results from the fact that an axon membrane is

selectively permeable.

A belief that adult personality is completely determined in early childhood would be most relevant to the issue of

stability and change.

The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the

axon

Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is clearly in Piaget's ________ stage.

sensorimotor

Mrs. Carmichael secretly dabs some lipstick on the nose of her 2-year-old son and then allows him to see his face in a mirror. The child is most likely to

touch his own nose.

Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called

assimilation.

The activation of light-sensitive retinal proteins in our eyes signals our brains to decrease production of

melatonin.

Information is carried from the central nervous system to the body's tissues by

motor neurons.

A child's temperament is likely to be

stable over time.

When a person speaks, brain waves and bloodflow are especially likely to reveal increased activity in the

left hemisphere.

The inability to recognize familiar faces even though one can clearly see and describe features of the faces is associated with damage to the ________ lobes.

temporal

A need to take larger and larger doses of sleeping pills to avoid insomnia indicates

tolerance.

Lewis is a 70-year-old retired college professor. In contrast to when he was 30, he now probably

does not hear as well.

Left-handedness is ________ common than usual among mathematicians and ________ common than usual among artists.

more; more

A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a

gene.

Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to isolate

causes from effects.

Two-year-old Anna perceives her parents as cold and rejecting. This is most indicative of

insecure attachment.

When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget's ________ stage.

sensorimotor

One form of a gene that regulates the neurotransmitter serotonin contributes to the development of

a fearful temperament.

Four months after having been exposed to a vibrating, honking device placed on its mother's abdomen, a fetus demonstrates

habituation

Unlike ducklings, children do not imprint. Their fondness for certain people, however, is fostered by

mere exposure.

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