Chapter 11: Personality

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The superego is Freud"s term for

a moral component of personality

The collection of beliefs about one"s own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior is referred to as one"s __________, according to Rogers.

self-concept

A child's identification with their same-sex parent (mother or father) would indicate a resolution of the Oedipal Complex, which Freud said occurs during which of the following psychosexual stages?

phallic stage

Which of the following definitions of "personality" BEST reflects the views of B.F. Skinner?

a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations

Finding ways to meet instinctual needs and still take into account the conditions of the external, social world defines the __________, the basic operating theme of the __________.

reality principle; ego

In explaining why Cole is deceitful and has a tendency to lie, a psychologist who held a strong behavioral view toward personality development would consider Cole's

previous learning experiences and his history of reinforcement.

The major criticism humanistic personality theorists have concerning BOTH psychodynamic and behavioral theories of personality is that those theories

are dehumanizing and deterministic

A man who has numerous reasons to hate his mother instead lavishes her with unrealistic amounts of attention and love. He is probably exhibiting the defense mechanism of

reaction formation

When myths and legends from different cultures are compared, there are often similarities between the characters and images that are depicted. Based on Jung"s analytical psychology, some of these similarities may stem from

the collective unconscious

Meagan is strongly attracted to one of the men that she works with. However, her coworker is married. To deal with the anxiety that her feelings have generated, she has unconsciously convinced herself that her coworker is attracted to her. According to Freud, Meagan may be unconsciously dealing with the anxiety caused by her feelings toward her coworker using the defense mechanism of

projection

Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she can"t have her own way. She often behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she can"t have the things that she wants immediately. According to Freud"s view of the personality, Cari"s personality appears to be dominated by

her id

The central aspect of neo-Freudian Alfred Adler's theory of personality is that people

strive to adapt and master life"s challenges ("will to power")

A college student under stress cries, throws things and throws a temper tantrum. The behavior of the student is an example of the defense mechanism known as

regression

Jose is one of the top baseball players in his league, but last week he struck out on an easy pitch. When this happened he smashed the water cooler in the dugout with his bat. According to Freud, Jose may be unconsciously dealing with his anger at himself for striking out on an easy pitch by using the defense mechanism of

displacement

If you needed a personality inventory capable of measuring a person"s degree of psychopathology, you would probably use

the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

A personality measure that asks you to respond freely to an ambiguous stimulus such as a picture or an inkblot is called a

projective test

One primary criticism of behavioral theories of personality is that the theories

overgeneralize from animal behavior to human behavior.

Daryl is taking a personality test in which he is shown a series of simple scenes. He is supposed to tell a story about what is happening in each scene and suggest what the characters are feeling. The test that Daryl is taking is the

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Which of the following personality theorists contends that personality is determined to a large extent by a person"s genes?

Hans Eysenck

A Freudian might explain a compulsive smoker"s behavior as being the result of fixation at the

oral stage

Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move forward to the next stage, a phenomenon that Freud called

fixation

According to Rogers what type of love influences children to overcome feeling of unworthiness?

unconditional

As a young girl, Susan suffers traumatic abuse. However, she cannot recall anything about it. This is an example of the Freudian defense mechanism

repression

What is the name Carl Jung used to identify the level of the unconscious that stores latent memory traces inherited from our ancestral past?

collectiveness unconscious

One criticism of humanistic theories of personality is that the theories

are unrealistically optimistic about human nature.

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