Earth Science Midterm

103 terms by ovafield18 

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All of Mr. D's quizlets in ONE

change

occurs when the properties or characteristics of part of the environment change

density

amount of material in the volume of an object

density=(formula)

mass/volume

dynamic equilibrium

opposing forces or actions balancing out

inference

interpretation of observations

interface

boundary between areas of different properties

mass

amount of matter in an object

Natural hazard

non-human related object, process, or situation that could cause loss of life, personal injury, and/or loss of property

Observation

Perception of some aspects of the environment by one or more human senses.

Pollution

the concentration of any substance or form of energy reaches a proportion that adversely affects animals, plants, or people.

volume

how much space an object occupies

atmosphere

the layer of gases that surounds earth above the surface of liquid water and rocky material

contour lines

isolines that connect points of equal elevation

coordinate system

the system for determining the coordinates of a point

crust

the upper portion of the lithosphere

earths interior

the region extending from the rocky part of earth surface to earth center

elevation

the vertical distance of height above or below sea level

equator

the parallel on earth midway between the geographic north and south poles with a latitude of zero

field

any region of space or the environment that has come measurable value of a given quantity at every point

gradient

the rate of change from place to place within the fields (slope)

gradient formula

change in amount of field value/ change in horizontal distance

hydrosphere

the layer of liquid water that lies between the atmosphere and much of the upper layer of earths interior

isolines

the varying values of a field represented on maps to connect points of equal field values

latitude

the angular distance north or south of the equator

lithosphere

the layer of rock that forms the solid outer shell at the top of earth interior

longitude

the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian

meridian

any semi circle on earth surface conecting the north and south geographic poles

model

a way of representing the properties of an object or system

pauses

the interfaces or boundaries of the layers of earth's atmosphere

prime meridian

the meridian of zero longitude

profile

the side view of an areas landscape

topographic map (contour map)

a comonly used model of the elevation fields of the surface of earth

asteroid

a solid rocky or metallic bodty that independantly orbits the sun

celestial object

any object outside or above earths atmosphere

comet

mainly composed of solids that easily change to gases when heated

Doppler effect

shifting of wavelengths

eccentricity

the measured degree of "ovalness" in an ellipse

ellipse

shape of orbits for revolving objects

foci

fixed points at the centers of an ellipse

galaxy

a collection of billions of stars and various amounts of gas and dust held together by gravity

gravitation

attractive force between any two objects in the universe

impact crater

a depression in earth crust

impact event

the colliding of comets, asteroids, and meteoroids or any other type of celestial body

inertia

an object at rest will stay at rest; a body in motion tends to stay in motion

Jovian planets

large, gas planets, large diameter, low density, farther from sun

luminosity

how bright a star will be in relation to the sun if all star were the same distance from the observer

meteors

when meteoroids enter Earth's atmosphere

Milky Way Galaxy

our solar system is part of this galaxy, which contains over 200 billion stars

moon

a body that orbits a planet or an asteriod as those objects orbit the sun

nuclear fusion

the combining of the nuclei of smaller elements to form the nuclei of larger emelments with some of the mass being converted into energy

red shift

caused by an increase in distance between the observer and the source of EM radiation

revolution

movement around the sun in an orbit, one year

rotation

planets spin around an imaginary axis, one day

solar system

the sun and all objects that orbit the sun under its gravitational infulence

star

a large ball of gas held together by gravity that produces tremendous amounts of energy and shines

terrestrial planets

small rocky planets, small diameter, high density, closer to sun

the big bang theory

all matter and energy started out in a small area and after an explosion matter began to organize into subatomic particles and atoms

universe

the totality of all things that exist- all matter, time, energy and space

axis (of rotation)

imaginary line through Earth from north pole to south pole

constellation

group of stars

Coriolis effect

deflection of all moving particles of matter at earths surface to the right in the northern hemisphere proves earths rotation

eclipse

complete or partial blocking of light when one celestial body moves into the shadow of another celestial body

Foucault pendulum

proves rotation of the earth

geocentric model

theory that earth is center of universe

heliocentric model

theory that sun is center of universe

local time

time based on the rotation of the earth as reflected in the sun

phases of the moon

varying amounts of the lighted moon as seen from earth are known as the moons phases

tides

gravitation between the earth, the moon, and the sun results in a cyclic rise and fall of ocean waters on earth

time zone

15º wide bands that are an hour apart, there are 24 around earth

absolute zero

0 degrees Kelvin- no molecular movement AT ALL

absorb

waves taken into a material

condensation

gas to liquid

conduction

transfer of heat from atom to atom or molecule to molecule

convection

transfer of heat in fluids and causing density changes

crystallization

liquid changing to a solid in an ordered pattern

electromagnetic energy

type of energy radiated in transverse waves

electromagnetic spectrum

Model that shows the types of EM energy

energy

the ability to do work

evaporation / vaporization

liquid to a gas

heat energy

Infrared waves moving from source to sink

joule

unit of heat

mechanical energy

total potential + total kinetic energy

melting

changing state from solid to liquid

radiation

heat transfer through EM waves

reflect

waves bouncing off of materials

refract

bending of waves

solidification/freezing

changing from liquid to solid

specific heat

quantity of heat needed to raise the temp of 1g of a substance 1degree C

sublimation

solid to gas or gas to solid

temperature

the average kinetic energy of an object

texture

roughness or smoothness of a material or surface

wavelength

distance between two corresponding points on a wave

angle of incidence

the angle at which the insolation strikes the earths surface

deforestation

the cutting down of trees and other plants of a forest

El Nino

occurs when cold eastern Pacific water is naturally warm

global warming

an increase in average temperature

greenhouse gases

gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane present in the earths atmosphere which absorb long-wave radiation

heat budget

is the result of the balance between the total amount of energy it receives and the total energy it emits or loses

ice ages

when glaciers advance into the middle latitudes

Insolation

Incoming Solar Radiation, the suns output of electromagnetic radiation that is received by earth

Ozone

a form of oxygen gas, blocks a portion of UV

sunspot

a darker region of the suns visible surface

transpiration

a process by which plants release water vapor into the atmosphere as part of their life functions

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