White Collar Final

58 terms by canada4428 

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The mafia has traditionaly been associated with...

gambling, loan-sharking, labor-racketeering

The network of alliances perspective characterizes organized crime as both...

a product of and an important on-going element of a capitalist political economy

The "spectrum-based theory of enterprise,"

applied to organized crime views it as an alternative way of conducting business illegally

The CIA enlisted the help of syndicated crime in the 1960s in its...

attempt to overthrow Cuba's Fidel Castro

The evidence on the relationship between government officials and organized crime suggests that...

links exist in all levels of government

The growth and expansion of organized crime has been especially linked with...

prohibition

The methods used by 20th century mafiosi have been compared to the methods used by...

19th century industrial capitalists and cattle barons

On the relationship of syndicated crime to legitimate businesses, it can be said that a...

wide range of legitimate businesses have been infiltrated by syndicated crime

The illegal disposal of hazardous waste is most consistent with the..

network model of organized crime

Donald Cressey speculated that at some point early in the 21st century one would no longer be able to...

tell the difference between white collar and organized crime

The "big con" type of professional crime intersects most fully with...

white collar crime

Joseph "Yellow Kid" Weil, a legendary professional criminal...

operated defrauding wealthy, greedy individual

The owner of a legitimate business who buys and sells stolen property is most popularly known as a...

fence

Frauds and swindles have...

existed since ancient times

Those engaged in fraud are likely to...

play upon the emotions of fear, vanity, and loneliness

Get-rich-quick schemes tend to flourish during...

hard economic times

Fraud in art and antiquities disproportionately involves...

wealthy and sophisticated elites as victims and perpetrators

The original Ponzi scheme is best described as...

selling people shares in a non-existent investment, paying out to early investors from later investors' funds

According to the text, the Madoff Ponzi scheme is...

the largest Ponzi scheme committed to date

Pyramid schemes are best described as...

selling people franchises which they must sell to other gullible investors

Purchasing stock in a company, creating a hype that leads to the value of the stock rising, and then selling it at a profit is referred to as...

pump and dump

A notorious fraudster named Jordan Belfort wrote a memoir about his experience that was optioned for...

a possible Hollywood film

Technocrime has been most greatly facilitated by...

the growing popularity of the internet

According to the text, what estimated ratio of all business software is pirated...

1/3

American financial institutions alone sustain close to what sum in annual losses due to identity theft and fraud

$50 billion

According to the text, to date, the practical impact of computer crime laws has been...

limited at best, though their symbolic and ideological importance may be more substantial

A theory is best defined as a...

formal version of an explanation

When we focus on individual or organizational motivations...

we are primarily concerned with which criminality factors

Criminalization is the process whereby...

particular activities, entities, and individuals come to be defined as criminal

The macro-level explanation for white collar crime focuses on...

the structural conditions pertaining to society and organizations

The micro-level explanation for white collar crime focuses on...

the offender, and individual propensities and choices

The demonic explanation for criminality is...

not typically invoked today, but is hardly extinct

White collar offenders typically...

do not "look like criminals" and so may be less likely to have criminality imputed to them

The specific views of Freud on crime can be best linked with...

white collar crime which has a self-destructive character

With regard to the relationship between white collar crime and personality most white collar offenders...

appear to fall within the range of normal personality types

In terms of character as well as personality, those who refrain from engaging in white collar crime are most likely to be...

individuals with a strong sense of moral integrity

Involvement with white collar crime is most likely to be associated with...

relative normality

Studies on white collar crime and its association with mental illness, drug addiction, and intellectual aptitude have found evidence that...

white collar criminals may have above-average intelligence

With regard to the relationship between social class and involvement with crime some criminologists have claimed that criminality is more...

pronounced among the powerful and privileged than among the powerless and underprivileged

Organizations with specific goals have been characterized as...

rational systems

When we say the Ford Motor Company produced unsafe cars...

we are treating the organization as an actor

With regards to corporate or organizational crime, the text stresses that...

the organization and its resources make many crimes possible

Decoupling is characterized by...

the top managers in organizations attempting to protect the good reputation of the organization by providing statements on how decisions should be made while creating incentives for lower-level managers to take deviant or illegal actions on behalf of the organization

Corporate involvement in crime seems to be linked with...

an economic climate promoting aggressive pursuit of profit

Diffusion theory focuses on...

how a fraud spreads among investors via social networks

The structural perspective in criminology focuses on...

the influence of social conditions or such factors as the distribution of power and resources

A general theory of crime attempts to explain different forms of crime with...

the same general explanation

The concept of "bounded rationality" takes into account...

the fact that choices are often based upon incomplete (or defective) information

Social control theory unlike most theories...

raises the question of why someone does not engage in criminal behavior

From the perspective of labeling theory, those in the white collar class are more likely to...

be in a position to shield themselves from being labeled criminal

A social psychological syndrome of experiencing negative emotions arising from strains (or negative dimensions) in one's environment best applies...

to general strain theory

Institutional anomie theory sets forth the core theme that competition for limited resources in a society, such as American society that puts such central emphasis upon the goal of individual monetary success...

will promote crime

According to the text, conflict theory is primarily concerned with...

explaining the process of criminalization

Marx and Engels saw the capitalist system as...

the primary cause of crime

Contemporary forms of radical criminology, such as left realism, peacemaking criminology, feminist criminology, and postmodernist criminology, have been principally concerned with...

explaining how crime is conceived of and constituted, and how it should be responded to

The notion that illusions (including the ultimate illusion of money) have replaced a more substantial dimension of reality is associated with...

postmodernist strains of critical criminology

In accounting for different levels of involvement of men and women in white collar crime, feminist criminology would be most likely to emphasize that women...

have been excluded from decision-making roles in the white collar world by the gendered structure of inequality

Integrated theories of white collar crime are best described as those which...

incorporate insights from different theoretical traditions and account for white collar crime on several different levels

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