PsychPortal Mastery Questions (Chapter 7)

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The overjustification effect would predict that if institutions of higher learning began paying college football players:
A. more people would try out for the football team.
B. the players would put forth less effort at practice.
C. the players would report that they enjoy the game more.
D. fewer fans would attend the games.

B. the players would put forth less effort at practice.

The phase of classical conditioning in which the CS and the US are presented together is called:
A. habituation.
B. discrimination.
C. acquisition.
D. generalization.

C. acquisition.

Which reinforcement schedule has the highest rate of response?
A. variable interval
B. fixed interval
C. fixed ratio
D. variable ratio

D. variable ratio

The idea that behaviors followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated is known as:
A. Pavlov's law of law of classical conditioning.
B. Thorndike's law of effect.
C. Garcia's theory of evolutionary conditioning.
D. Tolman's theory of latent learning.

B. Thorndike's law of effect.

Which of the following items is a secondary reinforcer?
A. food
B. shelter
C. money
D. comfort

C. money

Accustomed to the sound of the old can opener, your cat still rushes to her food dish even when she hears the sound of the new can opener for the first time. Your cat is definitely smart; more than that, she is exhibiting:
A. second-order conditioning.
B. discrimination.
C. generalization.
D. spontaneous recovery.

C. generalization.

What is one major flaw of punishment?
A. Punishment does not decrease the undesired behavior.
B. Punishment increases the undesired behavior.
C. Punishment does not promote learning about the desired behavior.
D. Punishment signals that unacceptable behavior has occurred.

C. Punishment does not promote learning about the desired behavior.

The "positive" in positive reinforcement and positive punishment means that:
A. the target behavior increases in frequency.
B. an unpleasant stimulus is removed upon the occurrence of the target behavior.
C. a stimulus is presented upon the occurrence of the target behavior.
D. the target behavior increases or decreases to adaptive levels.

C. a stimulus is presented upon the occurrence of the target behavior.

In Pavlov's research, what was the CR?
A. pricking ears at the sound of the buzzer
B. salivating upon food presentation
C. a buzzer
D. salivating at the sound of a buzzer

D. salivating at the sound of a buzzer

A mental representation of the physical features of the environment is called a:
A. cognitive maze.
B. latent map.
C. cognitive map.
D. mental diagram.

C. cognitive map.

John Garcia and his colleagues, as a result of their studies, came to conclude that the cancer patients who experienced nausea after treatments developed a taste aversion to the foods they had eaten earlier. The technique they developed for minimizing this negative effect involved:
A. flashing different pictures of a patient's favorite food on an overhead monitor while the patient underwent treatment.
B. giving a patient unusual foods, such as coconut or root-beer flavored candy, at the end of their last meal before undergoing treatment.
C. administering food to a patient in the middle of the treatment cycle.
D. telling a patient to eat samples of favorite foods before entering therapy, thereby ensuring that the patient remembered what the favorite foods were even after treatment.

B. giving a patient unusual foods, such as coconut or root-beer flavored candy, at the end of their last meal before undergoing treatment.

Positive reinforcers ________ and negative reinforcers ________ the future probability of the behavior that led to these respective consequences.
A. increase; increase
B. increase; decrease
C. decrease; decrease
D. decrease; increase

A. increase; increase

When a drug of abuse such as heroin is injected, the entire setting (the drug paraphernalia, the room, the lighting, etc.) can become a ________ and elicit responses ________ to the drug.
A. US; similar
B. US; in opposition
C. CS; similar
D. CS; in opposition

D. CS; in opposition

A fixed-interval, 60-second schedule delivers a reinforcer:
A. every 60 seconds.
B. after 60 responses.
C. for the first response that occurs after 60 seconds elapse.
D. 60 seconds after a response is emitted.

C. for the first response that occurs after 60 seconds elapse.

A rat that studies in a complicated maze with many arms, some of which are baited with food, will:
A. traverse one arm, and if it finds food, select this arm over and over again in the future.
B. explore the entire maze but often revisit arms that had contained food.
C. explore the maze in a random, haphazard fashion due to its complexity.
D. rarely revisit an arm.

D. rarely revisit an arm.

In his experiment with Little Albert, one of John Watson's goals was to show that:
A. humans, unlike other animals, are not susceptible to classic conditioning.
B. fear can be learned by means of classical conditioning.
C. conditioning can produce only behavioral responses, not emotional ones.
D. one's environment is not responsible for behavior.

B. fear can be learned by means of classical conditioning.

When the Brelands tried to teach pigs and raccoons to drop a coin in a box, the animals:
A. learned the trick only if explicit reinforcement was provided for doing so.
B. learned the trick if food was used as a reinforcer, but did not learn the trick if conditioned reinforcement was used.
C. had extreme difficulty learning the trick because of their predisposed tendencies.
D. failed to learn the trick, indicating the some animals evolved to be completely impervious to operant conditioning.

C. had extreme difficulty learning the trick because of their predisposed tendencies.

In both delay and trace conditioning, the CS is presented ________ the US.
A. before
B. after
C. simultaneously with
D. before and continues during

A. before

Pavlov conditioned dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell by following the bell with food. How could Pavlov use extinction to eliminate salivating to bells?
A. Present food repeatedly in the absence of the sound of the bell.
B. Repeatedly ring the bell, but never follow it with food.
C. Ring the bell, and then present poison-laced food to induce sickness.
D. Only present food every other time the bell is rung.

A. Present food repeatedly in the absence of the sound of the bell.

Rescorla and Wagner originated which of the following theories?
A. Behavioral responses can be conditioned in animals.
B. Classical conditioning occurs only when the animal has learned to set up an expectation.
C. Humans, as well as animals, are capable of undergoing classical conditioning.
D. Conditioning works more quickly when the conditioned stimulus is familiar.

B. Classical conditioning occurs only when the animal has learned to set up an expectation.

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