Chapter 8: Cognition and Intelligence

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A symmetrical bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics, including intelligence, are distributed is the

normal distribution.

According to Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, someone who is efficient at processing information and who performs well on conventional tests designed to measure reasoning and logical-mathematical abilities, should score high in

analytical intelligence

Which of the following statements regarding heredity and intelligence is LEAST accurate?

fraternal twins reared together have higher correlations on IQ than do identical twins reared apart

The BEST evidence supporting the role of genetic factors in intelligence is provided by studies that compare

identical and fraternal twins.

Saying that the heritability of intelligence is 70% would mean that

????

IQ test are fairly good predictors of

academic success.

Which barrier to problem-solving are you overcoming when you use a piece of paperclip as a temporary replacement for the screw that fell out of your glasses?

functional fixedness

People often assume that it is necessary to use all the numerical information provided in a problem in order to solve the problem. In reality, numerical information sometimes makes it more difficult to solve a problem because the information

may be irrelevant.

The original French intelligence test was revised and renamed the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale by

Lewis Terman.

If a psychological test does, in fact, measure what it was designed to measure, the test has

validity.

A shortcut, "rule of thumb," or guiding principle used in solving problems or making decisions is

a heuristic.

Correlations between students' IQ scores and their school grades suggest that IQ tests

academic testing

Sternberg believes that _____ is the aspect of intelligence that is assessed by conventional IQ tests and is crucial for most types of academic work.

analytical

Which psychologist concluded that humans exhibit eight largely independent types of intelligence?

Howard Gardner

Adoption studies comparing the intelligence of adopted children to their _____ provide support for the role of genetic factors in intelligence.

biological parents

Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon devised the first intelligence test in 1905 in order to

predict the school performance of children.

Observing the similarities between a new problem to be solved and one you've successfully solved in the past is called

searching for analogies.

If you tend to persist in using the same problem-solving strategy time after time, you are showing

a mental set.

The trial and error approach to problem-solving is MOST effective when

there is a relatively small number of possible solutions.

The fact that the correlation in IQ scores between identical twins reared apart is lower than that between identical twins reared together suggests that

environmental factors can have an influence on intellectual development.

Functional fixedness is the

tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use.

Which one of Greeno's problems is exemplified by the anagram?

arrangement

John, who has an IQ of 107, is BEST described as having

average intelligence.

The media tends to report deaths from natural disasters far more often than deaths from smoking. Thus many people believe that natural disasters cause more deaths than cigarettes. This is an example of which of the following?

the availability heuristic

Which class of problems involves discovering the relations among the parts of the problem?

inducing structure

Attempting possible solutions to a problem, then discarding the ones that don't work until you find one that does, is called the _____ method of problem-solving.

trial-and-error

An estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance is termed

heritability.

If the differences in IQ scores among people were entirely a result of genetic factors, you would expect to find that the correlation in IQ scores would be

the same for identical twins reared together and for identical twins reared apart.

Which of the following problem-solving strategies can most effectively solve types of problems such as the "monk on a hill" discussed in the text?

changing the representation of the problem

According to Robert Sternberg, intelligence can be divided into three major parts. These three components of intelligence are

analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence.

Experts estimate that the heritability of intelligence is approximately 50%. This suggests that

50% of the variability in intelligence in a population of individuals is due to variations in genetic inheritance.

The correlation between IQ and income is _____ than the correlation between IQ and success within a particular occupation.

weaker

Joe has a horrible pain on his right side, a symptom that is prototypical of an appendicitis diagnosis. Even though he does not have any of the other symptoms of appendicitis, Joe is convinced he has it and goes to the emergency room. He is motified to learn he just has a bad case of gas. Because Joe's error was based on the prototypicality of the symptom he did have, he relied on the_____heuristic.

representativeness

Austin is completing the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and one section of the test evaluates his ability to analyze patterns and copy designs using blocks. Austin's score on this section of the test will be used in the computation of his score on the

performance scale.

If a child who is ten-years-old has a mental age of twelve, the child's IQ would be

120

Many human traits, including intelligence, show a normal distribution. This means that

most cases are near the middle of the distribution.

After seeing your new neighbor walking very stiffly and primly by your house wearing horn-rimmed glasses on a chain, a cardigan sweater, and her hair in a bun, you decide she must be a librarian. Your judgment is based on

the representativeness heuristic.

Children from _____ background are less likely to develop their full potential for intelligence.

lower class

People who score high on IQ tests are MORE likely than those who score low to have

high grades in school and high-status jobs.

A deprived environment is generally _____ correlated with IQ.

negatively

Which of the following groups shows the HIGHEST correlation with respect to intelligence?

identical twins reared apart

You recently took the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and just learned that your IQ is 100. This IQ score of 100 means

that you showed average performance on the test.

The correlation between IQ scores and vocational success is BEST described as

moderately positive.

If retaking a test results in most individuals' receiving scores that are similar to or consistent with the scores they received the first time they took the test, the test has

validity

Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic classes of problems?

problems of probability

How are IQ scores related to occupational status and job performance?

School performance is important for certain jobs.

According to Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, someone who is able to cope well with new or novel tasks should score high in

creative intelligence.

Reorganizing the letters "OSHUE" to form an English word is an example of an anagram, which constitutes a problem of

arrangement.

Approximately _____ of IQ scores fall between 85 and 115.

68%

Since one of the main goals of playing Scrabble is to use your letters to form long words (the longer the word the more points you score), Scrabble can best be described as a game that involves a problem of

arrangement.

Sternberg's research on intelligence suggests all of the following

the three separate aspects of intelligence can each be reliably measured.

Which of the following is one of the eight types of intelligence described by Gardner?

logical-mathematical

Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which instances come to mind is called the

availability heuristic.

All of the following are examples of potential problems related to insight EXCEPT

many attempts are required before arriving at the correct solution.

The first useful or practical intelligence test was developed by

Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon.

Gardner's view of intelligence suggests that a highly successful car salesperson would be MOST likely to have high

interpersonal intelligence.

Which of the following is NOT a common heuristic for problem-solving?

trial and error

The availability heuristic implies that people will _____ the frequency of events that are easy to remember and _____ the frequency of events that are hard to remember.

overestimate; underestimate

Analogy problems such as "Mickey Mouse is to Minnie Mouse as Donald Duck is to ____" are problems of

inducing structure

The _____ heuristic involves basing estimates of event probability on the ease with which relevant instances of the event comes to mind.

availability

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