AJ Ch. 12: The Market Revolution and Social Reform

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Transportation Revolution

dramatic improvements in transportation that stimulated economic growth after 1815 by expanding the range of travel and reducing the time and cost of moving goods and people

steamboats

provided the first transportation breakthrough; reduced the cost and time of upriver shipments by a lot

Robert Fulton

A famous inventor, he designed and built America's first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first practical submarine.

Erie Canal

the first and most successful of the artificial waterways designed to link eastern seaboard cities with western markets

Railroads

a radically new technology that overturn tradition notions of time and space, most important of the transportation improvements; spurred economic development in Jacksonian America

incorporation, limited liability

...

Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837)

supreme Court decision of 1837 that promised economic competition by ruling that the broader rights of the community took precedence over any presumed right of monopoly granted in a corporate charter

New York City

largest U.S. city, exceeded 800,000 people, port city, access to Erie Canal

Ominibus

horse drawn coaches carrying up to 20 passengers

fall line

area along which rivers form waterfalls or rapids as the rivers drop to lower land

Lowell, Massachusetts

America's first large-scale planned manufacturing city—built around the falls of Merrimack River

Immigration

people coming from other countries hoping for U.S. citizenship

push-pull theory of immigration

The social, political and economic forces that cause people to leave one country (or region within a country) and the social, political and economic forces that influence them to choose another country (or region within their country).

Irish

main group of immigrants; couldn't stay in Ireland because of the Potato Famine—had no money to buy land or move west unless they joined construction gangs for canals and railroads

Germans

second main group of immigrants; came to America to escape poor harvests and political turmoil

putting-out system

system of manufacturing in which merchants furnished households with raw materials for processing by family members

artisan

had specific skills that set him above common laborers

apprentice

were adolescent boys legally sent by their fathers to live with an obey a master craftsman in return for being taught a trade

journeyman

learned the skills of their craft but lacked the capital to open their own shops

master

taught the "mysteries of the craft" to the journeymen and apprentices

factory system

undercut both household and artisanal manufacturing after 1815 could produce goods far more quickly and cheaply per worker than could artisans or rural households

Samuel Slater

British mechanic that took over the operation of a fledgling mill in Providence—converted the mill into the nation's first permanent cotton factory

Waltham system

During the industrialization of the early nineteenth century, the recruitment of unmarried young women for employment in factories

child labor

when economy got tough, Irish would send their kids into mills to get more money.

"mill girls"

recruited unmarried girls of farmers that had to work 6 days a week from dawn to dusk for low wages

Eli Whitney

built the prototype of the gin in 1793 while working as a tutor on a Georgia plantation

cotton gin

built by Eli Whitney, quickly and cheaply removed the seeds from cotton fibers

interchangeable parts

what Whitey based production off of

American system of manufacturing

a technique of production pioneered in the U.S. in the first half of the nineteenth century that relied on precision manufacturing with the use of interchangeable parts

steam power

the adoption of the stationary steam engine enabled power-driven industry to locate in port cities—enlarged region's industrial base and created a new industry

hydropower

power produced by capturing the energy of flowing water

Temperance

reform movement originating in the 1820s that sought to eliminate the consumption of alcohol

cult of domesticity

the belief that women, by virtue of their sex, should stay home as the moral guardians of family life

class consciousness

...

moral behavior

...

consumer goods

...

National Trades Union

formed to gain better wages, shorter hours, and enhanced job security

Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842)

a trade union was not necessarily subject to laws against criminal conspiracies and that a strike could be used to force employers to hire only union members

nativist organizations

favoring the interest and culture of native-born inhabitants over those of immigrants

Persuasion

what the Temperance reform rested on

American Temperance Society

National organization established in 1826 by evangelical Protestants that campaigned for total abstinence from alcohol and was successful in sharply lowering percapita consumption of alcohol

Washington Temperance Societies

small business men and artisans carried temperance into working-class districts

"social mother"

...

American Female Moral Reform Society

Organization founded in 1839 by female reformers that established homes of refuge for prostitutes and petitioned for state laws that would criminalize adultery and the seduction of women

Joseph Smith

founded the Mormon Church in 1830

Church of the Latter-day Saints, Mormons

Church founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith and based on the revelations in a sacred book he called the Book of Mormon

free public schooling

that all citizens, no matter how poor, could achieve meaningful liberty and equality

Horace Mann

head of the MA Legislature and a former Whig politician he demanded that the state government assume centralize control over MA schools

Shakers

the followers of Mother Ann Lee, who preached a religion of strict celibacy and communal living

Communism

a social structure based on the common ownership of property

Oneida Community

Utopian community established in upstate New York in 1848 by John Humphrey Noyes and his followers

John Humphrey Noyes

graduate from Dartmouth who studied ministry at Yale who established the Oneida Community—fled to Canada in 1879 for adultery

New Harmony

Short-lived utopian community established in Indiana in 1825, based on the socialist idea of Robert Owen, a wealthy Scottish manufacturer

Robert Owen

wealthy Scottish industrialist and philanthropist who found New Harmony

utopian socialism

a social order based on government ownership of industry and worker control over corporations as a way to prevent worker exploitation

Brook Farm

a utopian community and experimental farm established in 1841 near Boston

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Found Book Farm and a former Unitarian minister who taught that intuition and emotion could grasp a truer reality that could the sense alone

Transcendentalism

a philosophical and literary movement centered on an idealistic belief in the divinity of individuals and nature

Walt Whitman

wrote Leaves of Grass and shared Emerson's faith in the possibilities of individual fulfillment

Henry David Thoreau

embodied the transcendentalist fascination with nature and self-discovery by living in relative isolation for 16 months at Walden Pon

Nathaniel Hawthorne

focused on the existence of evil and the human need for community- novelist of American Renaissance

Herman Melville

focused on the existence of evil and the human need for community-novelist of American Renaissance

Racism

discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race

American Colonization Society

Organization, founded in 1817 by antislavery reformers, that called for gradual emancipation and the removal of freed blacks to Africa

David Walker Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World (1829)

advocated the most radical solution to slavery; slaves should take action themselves by rising up in revolt against their "masters"

Nat Turner's Rebellion (1831)

Virginia slave revolt that resulted in the deaths of sixty whites and raised fears among white Southerners of further uprisings. (384)

William Lloyd Garrison

1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.

The Liberator

antislavery newspaper launched by William Lloyd Garrison

Immediatism

Abolitionist doctrine that rejected gradualism and advocated an immediate end to slavery, beginning in 1831.

racial equality

...

emancipation

the freeing of slaves

American Anti-slavery Society (1833)

The first national organization of abolitoinaists, founded in 1833

Arthur and Lewis Tappan

Brothers born in Northampton, Massachusetts who united with Theodore D. Weld to form the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Theodore Weld

American abolitionist whose pamphlet Slavery As It Is (1839) inspired Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin.

Elijah P. Lovejoy

American Presbyterian minister, journalist, and news paper editor who was murdered by a mob for his abolitionist views

Liberty Party

the first antislavery poltical party, formed in 1840

Frederick Douglass - Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (1845)

spokesman for Liberty Party, wrote one of the few memoirs on slave life

The North Star

black abolitionist paper founded by Douglass and Garrison

"Slave Power"

term used by antislavery advocates to describe conspiracy of southern politicians and northern business owners. Planned to expand the bounds of slavery into new territory

Free Soil Party

foreshadowed the more powerful Republican Party of the late 1850s

status of women

...

American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society

organization founded in 1840 and led by the Tappan brothers that opposed the radical ideas of William Lloyd Garrison, especially his attacks on the churches and the Constitution; it followed a more moderate approach and supported the political activities of the Liberty Party.

Lucretia Mott

wanted to speak out for oppressed women

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

wanted to speak out for oppressed women, with Mott she called the Seneca Falls Convention

Seneca Falls Convention (1848)

The first convention for women's equality in legal rights, held in upstate New York in 1848

Declaration of Sentiment

the resolutions passed at the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 calling for full female equality, including the right to vote

New York's Married Women's Property Act of 1860

...

Susan B. Anthony

leader of woman suffrage movement, who helped to define the movement's goals and beliefs and to lead its actions

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