PsychPortal Mastery Questions (Chapter 11)

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Isabel, who just had her first birthday, sees a butterfly and exclaims, "Bird!" "No, that's a butterfly," says her grandmother. The next time Isabel sees a butterfly, she says, "Butterfly!" According to Piaget, Isabel has just shown:
A. assimilation.
B. concrete operations.
C. habituation.
D. accommodation.

D. accommodation.

Motor skills in infancy emerge:
A. in an orderly sequence, but the timing varies for different infants.
B. at the same time for all babies, but their sequence varies for different infants.
C. in an orderly sequence and at the same time.
D. in different sequences and at different times.

A. in an orderly sequence, but the timing varies for different infants.

Which of the following is NOT a reason why, according to Piaget, young children cannot grasp the notion of conservation?
A. Young children fail to make distinctions between objects and their mental representations of the objects.
B. Young children fail to think about centration.
C. Young children do not fully grasp the notion that they have minds.
D. Young children fail to think about reversibility.

B. Young children fail to think about centration.

At about 1 year of age, Andi begins looking at her caregivers to gauge their reactions when a stranger walks into the room. This phenomenon is called:
A. cultural tool development.
B. imprinting.
C. joint attention.
D. social referencing.

D. social referencing.

Two groups that are much slower than others to acquire a theory of mind are ________ children and ________ children.
A. autistic; deaf
B. deaf; mentally retarded
C. deaf; blind
D. autistic; antisocial

A. autistic; deaf

Which of the following statements has been supported by research on homosexuality?
A. Children raised by homosexual parents are more likely to become homosexual.
B. The sexual orientation of females is more malleable than the sexual orientation of males.
C. Conversion therapy has been proven effective at changing a person's sexual orientation in about 40% of clients.
D. Male children raised by a domineering mother and a submissive father are especially likely to become homosexual.

B. The sexual orientation of females is more malleable than the sexual orientation of males.

According to Erik Erikson's stages of human development, the major task confronting 15-year-old Tony is to develop:
A. a sense of who he is.
B. a sense of independence.
C. love relationships.
D. a sense of trust.

A. a sense of who he is.

Which of the following statements has been supported by research on homosexuality?
A. Children raised by homosexual parents are more likely to become homosexual.
B. The sexual orientation of females is more malleable than the sexual orientation of males.
C. Male children raised by a domineering mother and a submissive father are especially likely to become homosexual.
D. Conversion therapy has been proven effective at changing a person's sexual orientation in about 40% of clients.

B. The sexual orientation of females is more malleable than the sexual orientation of males.

Infants are able to mimic the facial expressions of adults:
A. when they are about 3 months old.
B. after the age of 1 month.
C. in the first hour of life.
D. after the first week of life.

C. in the first hour of life.

In the strange situation, 1-year-old Mei Ling mildly protests her mother's departure, seeks interaction with her mother when the two are reunited, and is readily comforted by her mother. Mei Ling is showing a(n) ________ attachment style.
A. disorganized
B. avoidant
C. ambivalent
D. secure

D. secure

A large study of day care in North America found that infants were likely to be insecurely attached if they attended a poor-quality day-care setting and their:
A. fathers were absent from the home.
B. mothers were employed full-time.
C. mothers were employed part-time.
D. mothers were not very responsive or sensitive.

D. mothers were not very responsive or sensitive

When placed in a cage with a terry-cloth "mother" and a wire "mother" equipped with a feeding nipple, rhesus monkeys:
A. refused to eat altogether.
B. spent more time hanging on the soft cloth mother, even though the wire mother provided nourishment.
C. spent more time hanging on the wire mother, primarily because it was equipped with a feeding nipple.
D. refused to spend any time on the soft cloth mother because it offered no nourishment.

B. spent more time hanging on the soft cloth mother, even though the wire mother provided nourishment.

Formal operational thinking is characterized by the ability to:
A. display reversibility.
B. show egocentrism.
C. reason about abstract concepts.
D. deal with physical facts.

C. reason about abstract concepts.

Two-year-old Peter has short eye openings, a flat midface, an indistinct ridge under his nose, and a thin upper lip. An alert pediatrician is likely to diagnose:
A. tobacco alcohol syndrome.
B. fetal alcohol syndrome.
C. teratogen syndrome.
D. Down syndrome.

B. fetal alcohol syndrome.

Due to differences in the regularity of the counting system, children in ________ can most easily deconstruct two-digit numbers.
A. Spain
B. China
C. France
D. the United States

B. China

Which of the following is NOT one of the three fundamental skills that allow children to learn from others?
A. assimilation
B. joint attention
C. imitation
D. social referencing

A. assimilation

Three-month-old Shantel has not yet acquired object permanence and, as a result, she will:
A. cry when her toy is hidden under a blanket.
B. construct a schema about where the toy is hidden.
C. not search for a toy that has been covered with a blanket.
D. search only briefly for a toy that has been covered with a blanket.

C. not search for a toy that has been covered with a blanket.

Studies show that sex education:
A. reduces the spread of sexually transmitted diseases among teens.
B. actually increases the rate of teen pregnancy.
C. produces slight increases in the number of teens having sex.
D. produces large decreases in the number of teens having sex.

A. reduces the spread of sexually transmitted diseases among teens.

A male zygote results from a(n):
A. X chromosome from the father and a Y chromosome from the mother.
B. X chromosome from the mother and a Y chromosome from the father.
C. X chromosome from each parent.
D. Y chromosome from each parent.

B. X chromosome from the mother and a Y chromosome from the father.

Most people find it morally permissible to sacrifice one life to save five lives, if the action involves pulling a switch. However, most people find it morally impermissible to sacrifice one life for five lives if the action involves pushing a man from a bridge. Why?
A. People are more likely to be injured if they attempt to push a man off the bridge.
B. An electromechanical device like a switch makes it more likely that the action will be effective.
C. People have doubts as to whether or not pushing a man from a bridge really will save five lives.
D. Pushing a man off a bridge evokes more negative emotional responses.

D. Pushing a man off a bridge evokes more negative emotional responses.

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