Chapter 10: Human Development Across the Life Span

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According to Erikson's theory, individuals are faced with the psychosocial crisis of identity versus confusion during

adolescence

Separation anxiety typically develops when infants are about ____ months old and peaks at around ____ months.

6 - 8; 14 - 18

Ashley finds a wallet on the floor at the store. She decides to turn in the wallet at the lost-and-found because she believes her parents will be proud of her for being honest. Ashley's reasoning reflects the ____ level of moral development.

conventional

Children can first perform operations on images of tangible objects and actual events during the ____ stage of cognitive development.

concrete operational

The two identity statuses that decrease with age are

identity diffusion and identity foreclosure.

Conventional thinking in moral development bases morality (right or wrong) on

society's laws.

Individuals at the ____ level of moral development tend to use a personal code of ethics to guide their moral reasoning and behavior.

postconventional

The preoperational stage of cognitive development lasts from approximately

ages 2 to 7.

The concrete operational stage of cognitive development lasts from approximately

age 7 to 11.

Which of the following is MOST likely to decline in the later years?

speed in processing information

Which of the following statements regarding personality changes in adulthood is MOST accurate?

the adult personality is characterized by both stability and change

George watched as a researcher placed five toy dogs and three toy cats on a table. When the researcher asked George if there are more dogs or more animals, George correctly answered more animals. George's behavior indicates that he understands ____ and is in the ____ stage of cognitive development.

hierarchical classification; concrete operational

Who developed a stage theory of moral development?

Kohlberg

Infants who have secure attachments tend to exhibit all the following behaviors during childhood and adolescence EXCEPT

less curiosity and less persistence as preschoolers.

The MOST common category of attachment formed by infants in the United States is the

secure attachment.

As 79-year-old Joe mentally reviews his life he cannot help from smiling to himself. He believes he married and spent over 40 years with the most wonderful woman in the world, helped to raise three fine children, and was successful in his career as an accountant. At this point in his life, Joe is experiencing

integrity.

According to Piaget, during the formal operational period of cognitive development, children begin to

think in terms of abstract principles and hypothetical possibilities.

Which of the following is NOT one of Kohlberg's levels of moral development?

unconventional

One-year-old Beth will explore a room when her mother is present. She becomes upset when her mother leaves the room and is quickly calmed when her mother returns. Beth exhibits

a secure attachment.

The psychologist who contributed significantly to our understanding of the cognitive development of children is

Jean Piaget.

Two short, fat glasses with the same amount of water are placed in front of a group of children. The children watch as water is poured from one short, fat glass into a tall, skinny glass. The children are then asked, "Does the tall, skinny glass have the same, more, or less water than the short, fat glass?" Which child is MOST likely to correctly state that the glasses have the same amount of water?

Debbie who is eight

Jeremy's father and two uncles are all dentists. Jeremy first decided he wanted to be a dentist when he spent afternoons at his father's office as a young child. Jeremy has not considered any other potential careers. Jeremy is MOST likely in the identity status of

identity foreclosure.

Conventional thinking in moral development bases morality (right or wrong) on

society's laws.

One of the criticisms of Piaget's theory of cognitive development is that

1. Underestimated children's cognitive development.
2. Little to say about variability.
3. Underestimated importance of environmental factors.

The idea that even if an object changes shape or appearance the underlying quantity of the object remains the same is Piaget's principle of

Conservation

At what age does an infant typically first exhibit separation anxiety?

six to eight months

The crisis occurring in the first year, according to Erikson, is one involving

trust versus mistrust.

Systematic problem-solving efforts are associated with individuals in the ____ stage of cognitive development.

formal operational

Ashley finds a wallet on the floor at the store. She decides to turn in the wallet at the lost-and-found because she believes her parents will be proud of her for being honest. Ashley's reasoning reflects the ____ level of moral development.

conventional

Which of the following is true with regard to changes that accompany aging?

speed of processing information declines

Typically individuals concerned with the crisis of identity versus confusion are in the ______ stage of cognitive development.

formal operational

Eight-year-old Eric watches as you flatten one of two equal-sized balls of clay into a pancake. Eric says they both still have the same amount of clay. When he is asked how he knows that the ball and the pancake have the same amount of clay, he points out that the pancake could once again be rolled up into a ball, demonstrating that he

understands the concept of reversibility.

Harlow's research with monkeys raised with two types of artificial mothers found that when frightened, infant monkeys went to the artificial mother that

was made of cloth.

One-year-old Tommy is extremely distressed whenever his mother leaves him, yet resists her attempts to comfort him when she returns. Tommy probably has ____ with his mother.

an anxious-ambivalent attachment

Which of the following is a criticism of Kohlberg's theory of moral development?

people can show evidence of being in different "stages" at the same time

During which stage in Piaget's system is the child first able to handle conservation problems and hierarchical classification problems?

concrete operations

Which of the following is a criticism of Piaget's theory?

he does not adequately address the question of individual differences

Preschool children who had secure attachments during infancy tend to display all of the following characteristics EXCEPT

less persistence.

The correct order or sequence of Piaget's stages is

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.

Which of the following is NOT a basic flaw or shortcoming characteristic of the preoperational stage of cognitive development?

object permanence

The two dimensions James Marcia described that combine to yield four identity statuses are

commitment and crisis.

Suggesting that a poor man who stole food to feed his family was right, because human life takes precedence over rules, is an example of

postconventional moral reasoning.

Robert does not have any idea about what he wants to do when he finishes school and "grows up." Additionally, he does not feel in any hurry to decide since there is plenty of time for that later. Robert's identity status is BEST described as

identity moratorium.

Erikson's crisis of integrity versus despair is associated with

late adulthood.

The stage of concrete operations is said to be "concrete" because

children can perform operations only on tangible objects and actual events.

At the preconventional level, the child decides if things are good or bad (moral) on the basis of whether they

bring punishment or reward.

The period of cognitive development that lasts from approximately age 11 onward is the ____ stage.

formal operational

Erik Erikson's developmental stages are organized around potential turning points called

psychosocial crises.

The number of adolescents in the identity statuses of ____ increases with increasing age.

moratorium and achievement

The period of cognitive development that lasts from approximately birth to age two is the ____ stage.

sensorimotor

Jasmin takes her one-year-old son, Randy, to visit a day-care center where she plans to enroll him. Randy eagerly explores the playroom, and when his mom leaves the room to fill out some forms he shows no signs of concern. When Jasmin returns, he shows little interest and continues to play with the toys he has collected. Randy exhibits

an avoidant attachment.

A child who successfully completes stage 1 of Erikson's stages of psychosocial development will acquire

optimism and trust toward the world.

According to Erikson's theory, individuals are faced with the psychosocial crisis of identity versus confusion during

adolescence.

Typically infants with ____ attachments exhibit little, if any, distress when their mothers leave the room.

avoidant

The emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment is termed

separation anxiety.

Water is poured from a short, broad beaker into a tall, skinny beaker. Is there more or less water now? A child answers that it's the same amount, only it's taller. The child is in which stage of cognitive development?

concrete operational

Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development. Which of the following is NOT one of his stages?

postoperational

Close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers defines

attachment.

According to Piaget's theory, children first show or develop object permanence during the

sensorimotor stage.

Mothers who are inconsistent or insensitive in responding to their infants are more likely to have infants who exhibit ____ attachments.

anxious-ambivalent or avoidant

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