Anthro Final

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Rage

Which of the following characteristics uniquely defines the anthropological approach?

holistic perspective

The detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork is called:

ethnography

Which of the following best describes ethnology?

cross-cultural comparative research

All of the following are approaches that linguistic anthropologists may take except:

analyzing which languages are superior

Participant observation:

is the method cultural anthropologists use to collect their data

Archaeology is the study of:

material remains to reconstruct past cultures

All of the following are important aspects of study in the Garbage Project except:

how to more efficiently pick up trash

Paleoanthropology can best be described as the study of:

human evolution

The identification of human skeletal remains to determine identification and manner of death is the primary focus of:

forensic anthropology

The preserved remains of plants and animals that have lived in the past are called:

fossils

If you cannot determine the exact age of an artifact, but you know by its deposition level that it is older than a another artifact, the dating technique used is called:

relative dating

Why do ethnographers frequently utilize key consultants?

key consultants spend time with ethnographers and provide explanations

Who first defined culture as that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by Man as a member of society."

Edward Tylor

For a culture to be successful, it must produce collective human behavior that is:

generally adaptive to the natural environment

Culture is considered to be all of the following except:

static

Gender is defined as:

cultural meanings assigned to sexually related biological differences

A group that shares ancestry, origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs is also called:

an ethnic group

A society in which two or more ethnic groups are politically organized into one territorial state is :

a pluralistic society

The most important symbolic aspect of culture is:

language

In the barrel model of culture, what are the three areas most interrelated?

infrastructure, superstructure, and social structure

All cultures are:

dynamic

What is the most essential research perspective for the anthropologist?

cultural relativism

NAtionalist ideology where people view their own cultures as the best of all possible worlds and superior to other people is an example of:

ethnocentrism

Language is characterized by:

openess, the ability to prevaricates, and arbitrariness.

Some chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans have been taught:

American Sign Language

If you were sent out to decipher an unwritten language, which area of linguistics would be the most useful to you?

descriptive linguistics

The identification and description of the distinctive sounds of a language is called:

phonetics

Which of the following is not a main branch of linguistics?

archaeo linguistics

The rules or principles of phrase and sentence-making in a language are called the:

syntax

What is the greatest linguistic risk that is posed by the growing popularity of Internet?

decline in linguistic diversity

French attempts to purge their language of non-French words are an example of:

linguistic nationalism

Individuals in a society vary on how they use language based on all of the following factors except:

height

Distinct male and female patterns of speech are called:

gendered speech

Which of the following statements is true about AAVE/ebonics?

It is a highly structured and patterned form of English.

Changing from one mode of speech to another as the situation demands, whether from one language

code switching

The method for notating and analyzing body language is called:

kinesics

What do we call the cross-cultural study of human perception and use of space?

proxemics

Hall identified what four categories of proxemically relevant space?

intimate, personal-casual, social consultive, public distance

Why is speech unique to humans?

great apes do not have the anatomy to speak like humans

Which of the following was a fully developed early writing system?

Egyptian hieroglyphics

"Feral" children are anthropologically described as:

children who grew up deprived of human contact and culture

Cultures is:

socially constructed and learned

The ability to identify oneself as an individual is called:

self-awareness

One of the most important sources of self-identity throughout human cultures is:

a personal name

This anthropologist pioneered studies of cross-cultural personality and gender with her research on adolescent girls in Samoa?

Margaret Mead

In what kind of society do we normally find rather egalitarian gender roles?

hunting-gathering

Psychological anthropologists have distinguished between two general patterns of child rearing,

dependence training and independence training

Francis Hsu defines core values as:

specific values promoted by particular cultures

The term that many North American Indians prefer for a transgendered individual is:

two-spirits or berdache

Windigo psychosis is an example of an

ethnic psychosis

Which of the following IS NOT a form of food production?

food foraging/collecting

To an anthropologist, the children of your father's brother are your _____.

parallel cousins

Ongka, the Kawelke big man, sought to enhance his status by

holding a moka, where goods are given away

To say that food foraging societies are egaltarian means that __________.

the only status differences are age and sex

Subsistence based on herding animals is called ________.

pastoralism

________ are food producers who specialize in gardening with simple hand tools.

Horticulturalists

The manipulation of the supernatural is called __________.

magic

The Yanomamo are an example of a _______ society

horticultural

A(n) _________ system is one in which goods are produced, distributed, and consumed.

economic

Payment of a woman's inheritance at the time of her marriage is called _________.

dowry

_________ is a type of economic exchange

Balanced recirocity, redistribution, market exchange, and negative reciprocity.

When an Australian hunter gives away most of his meat to relatives without specifying what is expected in return, he is exemplifying __________.

generalized reciprocity

Which statement is NOT true about the Yanomamo

They are a peaceful tribe and quite timid

The Kula Ring ___________.

Is a form of balanced reciprocity in which the trading of shell arm bands and necklaces form the basis of other partnerships

The system by which goods flow into some central source, and then out again to the community is called __________.

redistribution

From and economists's point of view, "market exchange" is defined by ___________.

the buying and selling of goods and services whose value is determined by supply and demand. Usually involves money.

A __________ is a part-time religious practitioner, sometimes called a witch doctor

Shaman

Something used to make payments for other goods and services as well as to measure their value is called __________.

money

People related through marriage have a(n) ________ relationship.

affinal

Marriage within a particular group of individuals is called ___________.

endogamy

Marriage to more than one woman at the same time is called __________.

polygyny

Ongka's rival, Rima, was able to disrupt the timing of the moka by:

claiming to have used witchcraft to kill a neighboring big man

A woman marries and goes to live with her husband in his village. This post marriage residence pattern is referred to as _________.

patrilocal

Serial monogamy is characterized by __________.

a man or a woman marrying or living with a series of partners in succession

Bride__________ refers to the gifts given to the bride's family in compensation for the loss of her labor.

price/wealth

Same sex marriages

provide a way of dealing with property issues in some African societies

In industrial societies, such as the United States, the most common form of residence after marriage is ___________.

neolocal

The family unit consisting of 1 or 2 parents and their children is known as the _______ family.

nuclear

A culturally sanctioned union between two or more persons that establishes certain rights and obligations between the persons, between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws. Legitimizes offspring and regulates inheritance.

marriage

In a(n) ___________ descent group, membership is traced through males.

patrilineal

____________ affiliates a person with close relatives through both sexes. This is the type of descent most commonly practiced in the US.

Unilateral descent

If you are a member of a matrilineal descent group, _________.

your brothers belong to the same matrilineal descent group that you do

A boy is born into a society that practices matrilineal descent. The person who excercises authority over him is _________.

His mother's brother

Which is an example of a descent group?

lineage, clan, phratry, and moiety.

If two people are given the same kinship term, this means that ________.

they occupy a similar status and are treated similarly

The blending of an indigenous religion with an introduced belief system is called.

syncretism

A society composed of several classes that differ in their access to resources and prestige is said to be

stratified

A(n) __________ is a special form of social class in which membership is determined by birth and remains fixed for life.

caste

Bands and tribes are both __________.

uncentralized and egalitarian

A __________ is a regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single authority figure at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people. Kinships important in establishing status.

chiefdom

A ritual manipulation of the supernatural designed to answer questions and reveal hidden information.

divination

A centralized political system with a bureaucracy that has the power to coerce is a:

state

How is social order maintained in bands and tribes?

gossip and fear of supernatural forces

_______ is viewed most simply as organized belief in the supernatural

Religion

This universal taboo prohibits sexual relations between closely related individuals (e.g. parent-child, siblings)

incest

A belief in an impersonal supernatural energy as depicted by Luke Skywalker telling Han Solo, "May the force be with you"-- is an example of __________.

animatism

Ceremonies such as barmitzvahs, elaborate wedding ceremonies, baby showers, and graduation parties that help individuals make major changes in their lives are referred to as rites of __________.

passage

A __________ is a deliberate effort by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture

revitalizations movement

Which scientist developed a taxonomic system that he published as Systema Naturae?

Carolus Linnaeus

A reproductively isolated population or group capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring:

Species

Darwin's theory states that species change on the basis of:

natural selection

Who was responsible for providing the principles of heredity?

Gregor Mendel

Alleles are:

alternate forms of a single gene

If a woman has blue eyes, this is her:

Phenotype

All of the following are evolutionary forces except:

genetic cloning

A small group of people with several colorblind individuals move from the mainland move to a previously uninhabited, secluded island. Two hundred years later a significant % of the people of the island have color-blindness. This is an example of:

founder effects

What is the evolutionary force that has kept populations from developing into separate species?

gene flow

Scientists have found that carrying sickle-cell anemia (meaning, one is heterozygous) protects the individual from:

malaria

The behavioral patterns among non-human primates interest anthropologists because they provide clues about:

the earliest development of human cultural behavior

Which of the following is the most accurate statement? Humans are considered to be part of the Primate Order because:

we share a relatively recent common ancestry

Which of the following are the least similar to humans?

lemurs

A creature that is active at night is considered to be:

nocturnal

For an arboreal primate, which sense is most important?

vision

What do we call vision that allows three-dimensional perception?

stereoscopic

What do we call the ability to grasp and manipulate objects between the thumb and other digits?

Opposability

Where are lemurs found today?

Madagascar

Which of the following represent the primate group, Prosimians?

tarsier, loris, lemur

Which group of primates is most associated with having a prehensile tail?

New World monkeys

Which of the following is the most solitary ape?

orangutan

Among chimpanzees and bonobos, grooming serves all of the following purposes except:

to beautify the animal

Which of the following is not a goal for anthropologists?

to develop a heroic narrative story of human evolution

What is continental drift?

movement of the earth's surface over time due to plate tectonics

Scientists date the split between human ancestors and the ancestors of African apes between:

8 and 5 million years ago

What is bipedalism?

a special form of locomotion on two feet

Which of the following hominids is believed to be the first toolmaker as evidenced by the current fossil record?

Homo habilis

Which of the following is not an advantage of bipedalism among humans?

an increased exposure to ultraviolet sun radiation

Which of the following countries has not yielded australopithecine fossils?

France

The Acheulian tool tradition is primarily associated with what group of early human ancestors?

Homo erectus

Which hominid was the first believed to use fire?

Homo erectus

The Mousterian tool tradition is associated primarily with:

neandertals

By what time period were humans fully modern, anatomically?

about 200,000 years ago

Which hypothesis argues that Homo sapiens originated through simultaneous transition (parallel evolution) throughout the inhabited world?

multiregional hypothesis

When did the Neolithic transition begin?

around 10,000 years ago

All of the following cultural adaptations have presented serious biological consequences since the Neolithic era except:

injury due to increased big game hunting

The Mesolithic was known in the Americas as the:

Archaic

Which of the following died out at the time of the Neolithic transition?

mammoths

Who were the Natufians?

a Mesolithic transition culture in Southwest Asia/Middle East

All of the following were associated with the Neolithic Revolution except:

increased movement away from cities

What do we call communities of gardeners working with simple hand tools and using neither irrigation nor plow?

horticultural societies

What is the clearest indicator of difference between a wild and domesticated plant?

size of edible parts

The Oasis Theory argues that:

drought created a need for people living in the Fertile Crescent to congregate in limited areas and begin collecting grass seed

Where is the Fertile Crescent?

Southwest Asia/Middle East

What two significant crops grown in the world today were first domesticated in the Americas?

potatoes and maize

Wild plant domestication:

took place in several areas across the globe, then diffused to surrounding areas

Which of the following is not an accurate statement?

the switch from food foraging to food production allowed people to work less in subsistence pursuits

The spread of ideas, customs, or practices from one culture to another is called:

diffusion

In the early farming community of Jericho, crops could be grown almost continuously because:

there was a large spring and fertile soils from a dried up Ice Age lake

Enamel hypoplasia indicates:

arrested growth caused by famine

The root word civitas for Civilizations means

urban area of dwelling (living in cities)

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