Chapter 15: Social Behavior

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Which of the following best defines social psychology?

The branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others.

A father suggests that his son"s low marks in school are due to the child"s laziness. The father has made

internal attribution

Imagine your psychology professor described the procedure and results of Milgram's study without discussing the term obedience or Milgram's interpretation of his results. Students (including yourself) in the class would be MOST likely to believe that had they been a subject, they would have administered

vastly fewer shocks than the typical subject.

When members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence or agreement at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision, it is referred to as

groupthink

Julio is a directive leader of a highly cohesive student group on campus. When discussing important policy decisions, the group will be at greatest risk for groupthink if it is also

isolated from dissenting viewpoints

Which of the following is NOT a factor associated with an increased tendency of a group to develop groupthink?

the group has a relatively weak leader who can be easily influenced by others

According to the fundamental attribution error, actors tend to attribute the behavior of others to __________ factors.

dispositional

In Asch"s studies, what was the relationship between group size and conformity?

Conformity increased steadily as group size went from two to four, peaked at seven and then leveled off.

To a certain extent, stereotyping is beneficial because

it helps people organize and cope with the huge amount of social stimuli they face every day, thus simplifying their social world.

Which of the following is the BEST statement of conclusion concerning Milgram's classic study involving the learner, teacher, and ostensible shock?

people have a strong tendency to obey an authority even if their actions may harm others

All of the following statements concerning stereotypes are accurate EXCEPT

stereotypes increase our accuracy in person perception.

Prior to the Milgram experiment, experts in human behavior had estimated that _______ of participants would deliver the highest level of shock.

1%-3%

Conformity occurs when people

yield to real or imagined social pressure

When the causes of a person's behavior are attributed to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings, it is

an internal attribution

Jane's eight-year-old son brought a note home from school today stating that he was involved in a fight at recess. Which of the following is an example of an external attribution that Jane might make to explain her son's behavior?

the other child probably started the fight and he was protecting himself

You are likely to attribute your own failing grade on a test to __________; your roommate is more likely to attribute your failing grade to __________.

an unfair test; your poor study habits

The "typical" subject in Milgram's study experienced _____ psychological distress _____ to administer stronger electric shocks.

considerable; but continued

The primary explanation(s) suggested to explain the behavior of the prison guards and prisoners in the Stanford Prison Simulation was

compliance with role expectations

The typical prison guard in the Stanford Prison Simulation

behaved in an abusive and malicious manner toward the prisoners.

Dallas watches as Rhoda missteps in the cafeteria and spills coffee on herself and two other students. If Dallas concludes that Rhoda is an uncoordinated "klutz" who wasn't paying attention to what she was doing, he has

NOT an made an external attribution.

The Stanford Prison Simulation was conducted by

Philip Zimbardo.

All of the following statements concerning stereotypes are accurate EXCEPT

stereotypes increase our accuracy in person perception.

In Milgram's (1963) study of obedience, subjects

were ordered to deliver painful electric shocks to a stranger.

A stereotype is

a widely held belief that people will have certain characteristics because of their membership in a specific group.

In his Stanford Prison study Zimbardo found that

situational factors have a powerful impact on social behavior.

Investigations of the "risky shift" phenomenon eventually led to the conclusion that this group phenomenon really reflected a tendency for group discussion to

accentuate group members' initial leanings

An actor tends to attribute the cause of his or her own behavior differently than an observer would, in large part, because actors have

more knowledge concerning situational factors than observers do.

Stanley Milgram conducted research on

obedience

In obedience situations, people are influenced primarily by _____________; but in compliance situations, people are primarily influenced by _____________.

direct orders; direct requests

When the behavior of all subjects was combined, Asch's study of conformity found that subjects exhibited conformity on approximately _____ of the trials.

35-40%

Subjects in _____ study concerning _____were instructed to indicate which of three lines matched a "standard line" in length.

Asch's; conformity

When the causes of a person's behavior are attributed to situational demands and environmental constraints, it is referred to as

When the causes of a person's behavior are attributed to situational demands and environmental constraints, it is referred to as

Which of the following reflects a clear internal attribution?

"He did what he felt was right."

When an observer is biased in favor of making internal attributions in explaining others' behavior, the observer is making

the fundamental attribution error.

According to Janis, what is a key cause of groupthink?

strong group cohesion

Consistent with the "actor-observer effect," when an acquaintance fails an exam, you would tend to attribute their failure to their _____ and if you fail an exam, you would tend to attribute your failure to the _____.

lack of intelligence; difficulty of exam

Ralph watches as a customer with at least 40 items lines up at his express checkout line. He decides the customer must be a real 'idiot' to miss the sign that indicates Ralph"s checkout line is an express line with a limit of 10 items. Ralph"s attribution for the cause of the customer"s behavior is consistent with

the fundamental attribution error

Conformity occurs when people

yield to real or imagined social pressure

As a result of the fundamental attribution error, if you observe a construction worker relaxing under a tree, you would be MOST likely to conclude that the worker

.
is lazy.

Believing that all women with blonde hair are dumb is an example of a ___________.

stereotype

According to the self-serving bias, when people experience success, they tend to make _____ attributions and when they experience failure, they tend to make _____ attributions.

internal; external

Julian is playing a computer trivia game against some friends. When he wins the first game he attributes his win to his quick reaction time. However, when Julian loses the second game he attributes his loss to the fact that his signaling button stopped working correctly. Julian's attributions for his performance during the trivia game are consistent with

a self-serving bias.

A mother suggests that her daughter is getting high marks in school because the tests and assignments are not challenging. The mother has made

an external attribution

Asch's "line study" clearly demonstrated that people _____ alter their behavior so that it conforms to the behavior of others.

frequently

Asch found that group size made little difference on conformity when

just one accomplice failed to go along with the rest of the group.

A typical subject in Asch's conformity study would be LEAST likely to exhibit conformity when

the group size was smallest

Solomon Asch conducted classic research on

conformity

One of the primary lessons learned from the Stanford Prison Simulation was that

situational factors affect people

Milgram's original study found that approximately _____ of subjects exhibited obedience by administering all 30 levels of electric shock.

65%

When Darren's classmate earns a 'D' on an essay for their history class, Darren figures the classmate is unmotivated, and should have spent more time working on the paper and less time socializing. But when Darren discovers that she herself got a D- on the essay, she tells herself that it is because she didn't have much time to work on it because she had to work double-shifts the entire week before the paper was due. The different attributions for the low grade on the essay illustrate

the actor-observer bias

Asch found that group size made little difference on conformity when

just one accomplice failed to go along with the rest of the group.

In Zimbardo's (1973) study the participants

prison

In Milgram's research on obedience, what did the experimenter do to the teacher when the teacher questioned whether the experiment should continue?

the teacher was given verbal prompts to continue

Observers tend to attribute actors' behavior to______factors and actors tend to attribute their own behavior to _____ factors.

personal; situational

Inferences that we make about the causes of our own and others' behavior are termed

attributions.

_____________ involves the exaggeration, through group discussion, of initial tendencies in the thinking (e.g., beliefs, attitudes) of group members.

Group polarization

Asch found that two key factors influencing conformity were

group size and group unanimity.

Imagine your psychology professor described the procedure and results of Milgram's study without discussing the term obedience or Milgram's interpretation of his results. Students (including yourself) in the class would be MOST likely to believe that had they been a subject, they would have administered

vastly fewer shocks than the typical subject.

According to the self-serving bias, when people experience success, they tend to make _____ attributions to explain their performance, but when they experience failure, they tend to make _____ attributions.

internal; external

Obedience occurs when people

follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority.

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