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respiration

the process where organisms convert sugar into ATP (energy the body can use)

reactants

what goes into the reaction

products

what is made during a reaction

photosynthesis

the process where plants use carbon dioxide, water, and energy from the sun to make food (and oxygen) (happens in the chloroplast)

chloroplasts

an organelle in plant cells; where photosynthesis happens

chlorophyll

absorbs light energy from the sun (in chloroplasts)

photosynthesis reactants

light energy, carbon dioxide, and water

photosynthesis products

sugar and oxygen

factors that affect photosynthesis

amount of light, amount of carbon dioxide, and temperature

photosynthesis equation

light energy + water + carbon dioxide ⇒ oxygen + sugar

photosynthesis equation

light energy + H2O + CO2 ⇒ O2 + C6H12O6

mitochondria

where respiration happens

ATP

energy the body can use

respiration equation

oxygen + sugar ⇒ water + carbon dioxide + ATP

respiration equation

O2 + C6H12O6 ⇒ H2O + CO2 + ATP

sun

all energy for living things originally comes from this

autotroph

another term for a producer

heterotroph

another term for a consumer

ATP

the main energy molecule for cells

carbon dioxide

CO2

carbohydrate

a main food molecule that gets digested into glucose

reactants

what is used in a chemical reaction

products

what is produced in a chemical reaction

photosynthesis equation

6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6O2

respiration equation

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP

chloroplast

the organelle where photosynthesis takes place

mitochondria

the organelle where cellular respiration takes place

thylakoid

flattened discs containing chlorophyll, where the light dependent reaction occurs

granum

stacks of thylakoids

stroma

solution surrounding the granum in chloroplasts, where the light independent reaction occurs

light dependent

the first reaction in photosynthesis, light and water combine to create oxygen, ATP, and NADPH

light independent

the second reaction in photosynthesis, ATP, NADPH, and carbon dioxide combine to create glucose

Calvin

the cycle that occurs in photosynthesis where glucose is made

Krebs

the cycle that occurs in cellular respiration where ATP is made

matrix

the space inside the cristae of the mitochondria

glycolysis

stage one of respiration, where glucose is broken down

aerobic

the type of respiration that occurs in the presence of oxygen

anaerobic

the type of respiration that occurs in the absence of oxygen

ATP production

the second stage of cellular respiration

fermentation

the second stage of cellular respiration when not enough oxygen is present

lactic acid

the type of fermentation that causes sore muscles

alcoholic

the type of fermentation that yeast uses to make bread

chlorophyll

the green pigment found inside the thylakoid

ATP and NADPH

what are made in the light dependent reaction and used in the light independent reaction

light and water

what is used in the light dependent reaction

oxygen

what is released as a waste at the end of the light dependent reaction

glucose

what is produced by the light independent reaction
C6H12O6

3.3 What does ATP stand for?

Adenosine Triphosphate

3.3 What is the main function of ATP?

Energy carrying molecule (able to release energy)

3.3 How is energy released from ATP?

The bond between 2 phosphate groups is broken

3.3 What are the 3 parts of an ATP molecule?

1 Nitrogenous Base(adenosine), 1 Sugar(ribose), 3 Phosphate groups

3.3 Which bond in an ATP molecule releases the most energy when broken?

The last bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate group.

3.3 How does ATP turn into ADP?

ATP loses a phosphate group, energy is released.

3.3 How does ADP turn back into ATP?

ADP adds a phosphate group back on, energy is required/used.

3.3 Energy is stored in bonds. What are some molecules that store energy in this unit?

ATP, NADPH, FADH2, Glucose...

3.1 What is the purpose of photosynthesis?

To make food/glucose/chemical energy for the plant by using Sunlight, Water, and Carbon Dioxide .

3.1 In which organelle does photosynthesis take place?

Chloroplast

3.1 What is the equation for photosynthesis?

6 H2O + 6 CO2 --> 6 O2 + C6H12O6
6 Water + 6 Carbon Dioxide -> 6 Oxygen + Glucose

3.1 What are the 2 reactants in photosynthesis?

Carbon Dioxide and Water

3.1 What are the 2 products in photosynthesis?

Oxygen and Glucose

3.1 What is the source of energy that plants use to complete the reactions of photosynthesis?

Sunlight

3.1 What are the 2 parts of photosynthesis?

Light Dependent Reaction and Calvin Cycle(or Light Independent Reaction or Dark Reaction)

3.1 What does the LDR produce that is a byproduct/waste?
What does the LDR produce that is used by the Calvin Cycle/LIR/DR?

- Oxygen(byproduct)
- ATP & NADPH(used by CC, LIR, DR)

3.1 Where does the oxygen byproduct originate from in the photosynthesis reaction?

Water molecules (H2O)

3.1 Where does the Carbon in Glucose originate from in the photosynthesis reaction?

Carbon Dioxide Molecules (CO2)

3.1 What fuels/provides energy for the Calvin Cycle/LIR/DR?

ATP and NADPH from the Light Dependent Reaction

3.1 If Water or Carbon Dioxide were removed from the plant's environment, what would happen to glucose production?

It would slow down and eventually stop making glucose because it ran out of reactants.

3.2 What is the ultimate goal of cellular respiration?

To convert food(glucose, proteins, lipids) into a usable form of energy - ATP!

3.2 In which organelle does Cellular Respiration take place?

Mitochondria

3.2 A cell that contains numerous mitochondria would probably be performing what process: Photosynthesis or Cellular Respiration?

Cellular Respiration

3.2 What is the chemical equation for Respiration?

C6H12O6(glucose/nutrients) + 6O2(oxygen) --> 6CO2(carbon Dioxide + 6H20(water) + ATP(energy)

3.2 What are the 3 steps of aerobic respiration in order?

1. Glycoloysis 2. Krebs Cycle 3. Electron Transport

3.2 Aerobic Respiration occurs when ____ is present.

Oxygen

3.2 Anaerobic Respiraction occurs when ___ is present.

No Oxygen

3.2 Where does Glycoysis take place?

Cytoplasm

3.2 What is the purpose/end result of Glycolysis?

Break glucose into Pyruvic Acid(pyruvate) and make few ATP.

3.2 What is the main reactant for Kreb's Cycle(Citric Acid Cycle) during aerobic respiration?

Pyruvic Acid (pyruvate)

3.2 What is the main product released during Kreb's Cycle?

CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)

3.2 What are the main reactants for Electron Transport Chain? Where did they come from?

- NADH & FADH2
- Kreb's Cycle

3.2 What products are created by the ETC (electron transpprt chain)?

- Energy (ATP)
- H2O (water)

3.2 What are the overall products created in aerobic respiration?

Carbon Dioxide, Water, and ATP (energy)

3.2 Which part of aerobic respiration produces the most ATP: Glycolysis, Kreb's, or ETC?

ETC electron transport chain

3.2 Aerobic Respiration creates the most ATP! What is the net gain of ATP created by this process?

36 - 38

3.2 Aerobic Respiration normally makes ATP, but what takes over when Oxygen is not present?

Anaerobic Respiration (Fermentation) replaces Aerobic Respiration temporarily.

3.2 Anaerobic Respiration (Fermentation) creates FEW ATP and potentially what other products?

- Lactic Acid
- Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide

3.2 Alcholoic Fermentaion produces Ethyl Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide. What microorganisms can perform this process?

Yeast and Bacteria

3.2 Lactic Acid Fermentation produces lactic acid. Which type of cells typically have more lactic acid build-up in the human body?

Muscle Cells

Overall ________ makes food and stores energy using the sun, and _______ breaks down food molecules to release energy in the form of ATP.

-Photosynthesis
-Cellular Respiration

photosynthesis

process that organisms use to convert the sun's energy into food

cellular respiration

process that organisms use to convert chemical energy (food) into ATP

chemosynthesis

Process of using substances other than the sun into food.

photoautotrophs

organisms that use sunlight to build food

chemoautrotrophs

organisms that use chemicals instead of sunlight to build food.

ATP

adenosine triphosphate. Energy currency with 2 high energy bonds.

ADP

adenosine diphosphate. Energy currency with 1 high energy bond.what ATP turns into after it loses a phosphate

light reaction

"light dependent reaction" Takes place in the thylakoid. Sunlight is tapped in the chlorophyll powering this step of photosynthesis. Can only take place when there is light.

thylakoid

flattened membrane sacs found in a chloroplast

stroma

area surrounding the thylakoids in a chloroplast

pigment

compound that absorbs light

chemiosmosis

diffusion of protons through an ATP synthase resulting in ATP

carbon fixation

when carbon is added to an organic substance

fermentation

anaerobic respiration. Respiration without using oxygen.

lactic acid fermentation

Happens in your muscle cells when you exercise hard and can't get oxygen to your muscles fast enough. Causes muscle cramps and soreness. Also is used in making yogurt and cheese.

alcoholic fermentation

Carried out by yeast and bacteria. Used in brewing beer, making wine, and baking bread.

Dark reactions

Also known as the light independent reactions. Takes place in the stroma and includes the Calvin Cycle. This is where carbon dioxide is fixed to form glucose.

glycolysis

Splitting glucose to form 2 pyruvate molecules.

Citric Acid Cycle

Krebs cycle. Occurs in the mitochondria. Creates 1 ATP, 2 Carbon dioxide, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH.

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