Psychology Final Review 5 (all chapters)

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The risk of coronary heart disease is increased by

high blood pressure.

People who regularly sleep less than normal experience a(n) ________ risk of depression and a(n) ________ risk of obesity.

increased; increased

We are most likely to imitate the behavior of models if we observe that their actions are

followed by reinforcement.

The release of cortisol into the bloodstream is most likely to

increase blood sugar.

After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates

observational learning.

A recurring difficulty in falling or staying asleep is called

insomnia.

According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among

behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events.

Associations between intelligence and brain size are most notable in specific areas within the

frontal and parietal lobes.

Retention of skills and classically conditioned associations without conscious recollection is known as ________ memory.

implicit

Encoding that requires attention and conscious awareness is called

effortful processing.

The blind spot is located in the area of the retina

where the optic nerve leaves the eye.

Treating our mind and body as independent entities seems especially inappropriate to those who take a ________ approach to therapy.

biopsychosocial

Although identical twins have been shown to have some amazing psychological similarities, one should be cautious about attributing these similarities to genetic factors because

any two strangers are likely to share a string of coincidental similarities.

The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social-cognitive perspective is to

Bandura.

A laboratory cat could be made to twitch its whiskers by direct stimulation of the ________ lobes of its cerebral cortex.

frontal

The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the

threshold.

Gender differences in heritable personality traits cannot necessarily be attributed to male-female genetic differences because

heritable traits can be influenced by social environments.

You are most likely to automatically encode information about

the sequence of your day's events.

Learning that some responses, but not others, will be reinforced is called

discrimination.

Our shifting perceptions of a Necker cube best illustrate the importance of

top-down processing.

Kentaro hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister's wedding to avoid his family's disapproval. Kentaro's behavior exemplifies the importance of

normative social influence.

Some sexually active undergraduate women do not consistently use contraceptives because they see themselves as less vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy than most other undergraduate women. This best illustrates

unrealistic optimism.

Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into

the bloodstream.

Our assumptions about the past often influence the manner in which information is retrieved from long-term memory. This fact is most relevant to appreciating the importance of

memory construction.

Hormones, the chemical messengers of the endocrine system, travel through the bloodstream to affect other

tissues.

The parasympathetic nervous system is to the sympathetic nervous system as ________ is to ________.

contraction of pupils; dilation of pupils

Which of the following is LEAST likely to be considered an important component of effective student instruction involving the use of interactive software?

respondent behavior

University of Texas students were fitted with belt-worn tape recorders for up to four days so that researchers could sample their daily activities. The researchers employed a scientific method known as

naturalistic observation.

A correlation between physical attractiveness and dating frequency of +0.60 would indicate that

less frequent dating is associated with lower levels of physical attractiveness.

The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned information is called

retroactive interference.

Ten-year-old Heidi is maturing early and already towers over all the girls and most of the boys in her fifth-grade class. Heidi is likely to be

the object of some teasing.

Clinicians diagnose the presence of a personality disorder using ________ of the DSM-IV-TR.

axis II

Compared with the general population, those who have suffered ________ have at least five times greater risk of suicide.

major depressive disorder

Unlike psychodynamic therapists, humanistic therapists tend to focus on the ________ more than the ________.

present; past

At about eight months of age, people across the world start to ________ strangers; as adults, they prefer the company of those whose attributes are ________ to their own.

fear; similar

Two years ago, the de Castellane Manufacturing Company included its employees in a profit-sharing plan in which workers receive semi-annual bonuses based on the company's profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity at de Castellane has nearly doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms of

operant conditioning.

Three-year-olds were shown a model of a room with a miniature stuffed dog placed behind a miniature couch. By using the model to locate an actual stuffed dog behind a couch in a real room, the children demonstrated their capacity for

symbolic thinking.

When golden hamsters were repeatedly threatened and attacked while young, they suffered long-term changes in

brain chemistry.

Our adaptive flexibility in responding to different environments contributes to our fitness, which refers to

our ability to survive and reproduce.

Therapists practice ________ by using positive reinforcers to reward closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior.

behavior modification

Some students study hard beginning with the first couple of weeks of a semester because they subsequently receive very good final course grades. This best illustrates that human behavior is influenced by

delayed reinforcers.

The case study is a research method in which

a single individual is studied in great depth.

The "we" aspect of our self-concept that comes from our group membership is our

social identity.

Simultaneously analyzing distinct subunits of information received by different areas of the brain is known as

parallel processing.

Differences between two sample averages are most likely to be statistically significant if

the difference between the samples is large.

Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of

ADHD.

A full week after Usha hears her mother read her a list of 12 different farm animals, Usha is most likely to remember the animals ________ of the list.

at the beginning

When Mr. Adams calculated his students' algebra test scores, he noticed that two students had extremely low scores. Which measure of central tendency is affected most by the scores of these two students?

mean

Sheen is usually animated and talkative when he is with his girlfriend, but he is often quiet and reserved at home. He actively participates in many class discussions but frequently seems reluctant to talk with friends at the campus coffee shop. Sheen's behavior should make us more cautious about overemphasizing the impact of ________ on behavior.

personality traits

The organizational rules identified by Gestalt psychologists illustrate that

the perceived whole differs from the sum of its parts.

Governor Donovan was greeted by large, enthusiastic crowds at all of his political rallies. As a result, he became overconfident about his chances of re-election. In this instance, the governor needs to be alerted to the value of

random sampling.

Hypnagogic sensations are most closely associated with ________ sleep.

NREM-1

Statistical reasoning can help us to generalize correctly from a

sample to a population.

Satoshi Kanazawa claims that people's scores on the general intelligence factor are most highly correlated with their ability to solve ________ problems.

novel

Test performance is typically ________ when physiological arousal is ________.

best; moderate

Instead of providing arguments in favor of a political candidate, ads may build political support by associating pictures of the candidate with emotion-evoking music and images. This strategy best illustrates

peripheral route persuasion.

Certain stroke victims report seeing nothing when shown a series of sticks, yet they are able to correctly report whether the sticks are vertical or horizontal. This best illustrates

blindsight.

Which of the following brain areas became especially active when a research participant lied about holding a five of clubs?

anterior cingulate cortex

A psychologist would be most likely to use ________ to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors.

shaping

A sample average can be used to estimate a population average with greater precision if the sample is

large.

Compared with nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face. This best illustrates

generalization.

Compared with right-handers, left-handers are

more likely to experience migraine headaches and more likely to suffer from allergies.

A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often

bias our perceptions of the labeled person.

In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor and observe its effect on some behavior or mental process?

experimentation

When Murli told his therapist, "I came to see what you could do for me," the therapist responded, "It sounds like you're feeling you need some help. Am I right?" The therapist's response illustrates the technique of

active listening.

Chickadees and other birds who store food in hundreds of places cannot remember the food storage locations months later if their ________ has been removed.

hippocampus

Without conscious reflection, people often yawn when they observe others yawning. Researchers are now considering whether this can be attributed to

mirror neuron activity.

After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly. The change in Raul's behavior best illustrates the impact of

informational social influence.

Production of the human growth hormone necessary for muscle development is most strongly associated with

slow-wave sleep.

Research on memory construction indicates that

false memories of imagined events are often recalled as something that really happened.

Alcohol may cause fetal damage by leaving chemical marks on DNA that switch genes abnormally on or off. This best illustrates

an epigenetic effect.

Shortly after hearing a list of items, people tend to recall the last items in the list especially quickly and accurately. This best illustrates

a recency effect.

The greatest number of deaths in Africa today result from

AIDS.

A need to take larger and larger doses of sleeping pills to avoid insomnia indicates

tolerance.

Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as

endorphins.

An ongoing study of 1100 children in 10 American cities has found that those who had spent the most time in day-care facilities had

slightly advanced thinking and language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness.

The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of money as ________ is to ________.

primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer

The brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar to those of

NREM-1 sleep.

During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to

be overactive.

A body that can store fat has the advantage of possessing

stored energy.

Little Han's extreme fear of horses was observed as part of a(n)

case study.

After hearing a list of items, peoples' immediate recall of the items is more likely to show a _____ effect than is their later recall of the items.

recency

Brain plasticity may contribute to the effectiveness of

constraint-induced therapy.

Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of

associative learning.

The pupil is the

adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.

When shown a face with an evenly mixed expression of fear and anger, ________ children were much quicker than other children to see anger.

physically abused

African infants have had a greater chance of survival if they have a living maternal grandmother who is without young children of her own. This fact has been used to support an evolutionary explanation of

menopause.

In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus signals the impending occurrence of

an unconditioned stimulus.

A clouding of the lens of the eye is called a

cataract.

Transference refers to a client's

expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier life relationships.

Maturation is to education as ________ is to ________.

nature; nurture

Horace, the youngest child of a high school athletic director, was able to roll over at 3 months, crawl at 6 months, and walk at 12 months. This ordered sequence of motor development was largely due to

maturation.

Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from

a phobia.

Helping people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorder is a central aim of

psychoanalysis.

Both the inseparability of mind and body and the interaction of nature and nurture are most clearly emphasized by

the biopsychosocial approach.

Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between

the actual self and the ideal self.

Which of the following research findings would be consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion?

Distinctly different patterns of brain activity are associated with distinctly different emotions.

Dr. Wolski conducts research on the potential relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Dr. Wolski's research focus is most characteristic of

the biological perspective.

Motor neurons transmit signals to

glands.

Rational-emotive behavior therapies are most likely to

vigorously challenge clients' self-defeating ways of thinking.

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