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BCDS 5 History Chapter 3

Fertile Crescent

The ancient name for the Region that includes Iraq, northeast Syria and part of southeast Turkey.

silt

fine soil found on river bottoms

irrigation

supplying land with water through a network of canals

canals

human-made waterways

civilization

An advanced culture with cities and a system of writing.

plateau

a relatively flat highland

occupation

A person's job or profession

division of labor

Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers

Tigris River

A river running through the northern part of the Fertile Crescent parallel to the Euphrates River.

Euphrates River

A river that flows through the southern part of the Fertile Crescent; parallel to the Tigris River.

specialization

The development of skills in a specific kind of work

artisans

workers skilled in a craft

social classes

Groups of people that occupy different ranks or levels in society.

government

the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies

surplus

more than is needed

domestication

The process of changing plants or animals to make them more useful to humans

agriculture

Farming and the production of food

megaliths

Huge stones used as monuments or as the sites for religious gatherings.

Neolithic Era

The new stone age that began around 10,000 years ago.

development

creation

rural

in the country

urban

city

city-state

a city that is also a separate, independent state

Gilgamesh

King of Uruk, a city-state in Sumer

Sargon

King of Akkad, a land north of Sumer, he built the world's first empire after defeating Sumer and northern Mesopotamia

empire

a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler

polytheism

belief in multiple Gods

priests

religious leaders

cuneiform

Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets

pictographs

picture symbols

scribe

a person who specializes in writing and serves as a record keeper

epic

a long poem that tells a story

architecture

the art of designing buildings

ziggurat

a tiered, pyramid-shaped structure that formed part of a sumerian temple

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